The French revolution started in 1787 and ended in late 1799 with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. This was also known as the Revolution of 1789, the reason it is called that instead of the Revolution of 1787 is because the climax was 1787. Some of the reasons for the French revolution are; international, political conflict, the Enlightenment, social antagonisms among two rising groups: the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie, the weak ruler: Louis XVI played a big part in it and economic hardship. The revolution seemed necessary for the idea of the enlightenment era. The main people who the French were trying to meet the ideas were Montesquieu, Voltaire, or Rousseau.
Was the Terror of 1793/4 inherent from the revolutions outset or was it the product of exceptional circumstance?
In the late 18th century of France, the third estate made up of the lower class of France had been oppressed and overtaxed, and received very little representation at the Estates General. The commoners of France wanted change and equality throughout France so they separated from the Estates General and formed their own government to govern France. A few years later in 1792, Maximilian Robespierre, the radical leader of the Jacobin party and the Committee of Public Safety, took control of France and executed king Louis XVI. Robespierre had a vision of a new France where everyone was equal. In order to reach his goal of completely reconstructing France, Robespierre unleashed a campaign of terror. Terror was used to enforce his
Throughout History the Age of Enlightenment refers to the age of where people brought up new ideas, and thinking. In that period of time, they was philosopher, politician and intellectual. So people adapting to the idea lead up to the French revolution. During the Enlightenment they was a reinforcement on the political conflict between the monarchy and the nobility. The nobility are the people who belonged to the noble family, and the monarchy are people in the throne (King and Queen). Therefore the conflict between the head of the monarch and the nobility was about taxation. The French government was in a deep debt after fighting a war with the American, their king Louis the XVI forced the noble and the clergy to pay tax in order for them to pay their dept. As a result the nobility revolted. During the French revolution political, social and economic conflict is the events leading up to overthrow the king Louis the XVI and Marie-Antoinette which mark the reign of terror. First of all I will talk about the French revolution political, social and economic cause, then I will talk about the role of the Enlightenment then finally I will talk about the reign of terror how everything how everything ended.
The topic that I will be writing about is the French Revolution and how it affected France as a nation. The book that I read was "The French Revolution, A tale of Terror and Hope for Our Times", by Harold Behr. This book gave a very large and broad overview of what transpired during the French Revolution, which occurred during the years of 1789-1799. Though the book covered a lot of material that happened throughout those years, I will be covering the main topics, such as what were the events leading up to the revolution, how the revolution affected the people of France, how the revolution affected the country as a whole, how the revolution affected the world, and whether or not the revolution in the end helped or was more detrimental to the country. All of the topics will be covered from my point of view and how I interpreted the author, there is another point of views on the revolution but this will be from what I felt the book meant to me.
In 1789, an event would take place that would shake a nation. This event further altered the country of France’s history and drastically changed its future. This event was known as the Storming of the Bastille, the first violent instance to instigate the French Revolution and the formation of a rebel alliance to overthrow French monarchy. However the motives of the renegades is far and wide. The question must be asked; What were the major reasons for the French Revolution? Many elements of France’s infrastructure were created to suppress the qualms of the people. However, the major influences that caused the French Revolution were the new ideas of the enlightened thinkers, powerlessness of the Third Estate, and famine crises. Without these factors within French society, a governmental collapse may not have occurred.
The screams and spirits weeped inside the walls of Versaille while the queen herself, Marie Antoinette lays on her freshly washed out white covers in sorrow. Baskets full with several heads, countless corpses, and terror, roamed the streets of France. France was in steep debt with a very high amount of starving poor civilians throughout the lowlife of the town. In addition, Louis created a severely unfair tax system by allowing only the peasants and lower class to pay taxes while the 3% of the upper class did not pay at all. The majority of France began to become angry and rebelled. A man named Maximilien Robespierre was a chief prosecutor who helped France turn on Louis and had him executed. Louis’ execution on January 21, 1793 was start of a 19 month period known as “The Reign of Terror” led by Maximilien. The Reign of Terror was not justified because the lack of rights given to the people, the amount of deaths, and the abstraction of power.
Also during the Great Fear, commoners not only looted but also burned down the houses of tax collectors, landlords, and the seigniorial elite (French Revolution).
For my book review, I have read and evaluated Sylvia Neely’s history book entitled A Concise History of the French Revolution published in 2007 by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Neely’s purpose is to gives an overview of the French revolution with the most important events, the most prominent people and the essential terms. We can see that the author proved her thesis by explaining the background causes of the revolution such as the ancient regime with Louis XVI. Also she described all important events in chronological orders which made it easier for the reader to understand. Neely’s book is at the same time an history book, but also an kind of encyclopedia because she included all essentials terms which were use during that time period, such as “dérogeance”, which means the loss of nobility.
The English treated the French as if they were subhuman. Showing no mercy, they ravaged the city, sparing nothing in their path. Even surrendering innocents, whom the English had no reason to be against, were put to death unjustly. This is yet another example of xenophobia and lack of basic empathy in acts of war. It brings into question the validity of their Christian beliefs. If they were truly Christians, how could they commit an act like this? It is apparent that the English invaders had neither empathy for their fellow man, nor actual religious faith.
“Let terror be the rule of the day,” with these prophetic words uttered, unspeakable violence
The French Revolution began in 1789 and it was an attempt to form a new and better government, but it did not work it only made it worst it was just a bloodbath and everything was blood. Louise XVI was the reason why the reign of terror happened. He made all this go to the ground, he was in charge and it was bad. Would it ever stop the death, or would it cost more death?
In this way the privileged classes had combined to outvote the third estate, which included more than 90 percent of the population. Another cause was the fall of Bastille. The falling of the Bastille marked a turning point-attempts at reform had become a full-scale revolution. One of the causes was the economic problems of many common people had become worse, because poor weather conditions had ruined the harvest. As a result, the price of bread, the most important food of the poorer classes had increased. Violence grew in both the cities and the countryside during the spring and summer. While hungry artisans revolted in urban areas, starved peasants searched the provinces for food and work. These vagrants were rumored to be armed agents of landlords hired to destroy crops and harass the common people. Many rural peasants began to panic, known as the Great Fear. They attacked the homes of their landlords to protect local grain supplies and reducing rents on their land. Also Lewis XVI gave in so reluctantly, for example, taking months to approve the Declaration of Rights, which made hostility of the crown only increased.
Liberté, égalité, fraternité was the cry of freedom that countless people used to propel them through, and to the end of the French Revolution. This long period of social, political and economic change in France lasted 10 years, starting in 1798 and ended with Napoleon Bonaparte. The French Revolution greatly affected all of Europe at the time and continues to represent the embodiment of revolution to this day. This constant struggle between the heavily taxed, burdened, and unrepresented third estate and those higher created an environment of monumental change for everyone. In the years leading up to the French Revolution, new beliefs and ideas were reaching every corner of Europe creating the thought that men should live free of oppression. However, in France the leader Louis XVI lead like a tyrant leaving the people impoverish and angry. Through the analysation of numerous circumstance present during the Ancien Régime, such as an inferior fiscal leadership, massive debt, and the forthcoming of new ideas during the Enlightened period, it can be concluded that the means for this revolution were justified as it is in our essence to revolt for a change.
Edmund Burke published the Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790; after the Bastille had been stormed by the Paris mol. He reflects upon about how France was very chaotic. Burke opposed the values of his contemporary revolutionaries; and he predicted that the French revolution would cause problems of fear and chaos to the country. Burke also believed that the revolutionary leaders were more interested in themselves and that they wanted power, however; and really did not care about the well-being of the French people. He believed in the concepts of liberty, equality and the right for everyone; he argues that people should have the opportunity to own their private property. Furthermore, Burke viewed the revolution as a violent takeover of the government, emphasizing that citizens should not have the right to do this. He also argues about importance of tradition in that tradition is what holds society together.