The HPV Vaccine and Its Effect on Cancer Screening and Prevention

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The HPV vaccine and its effect on cancer screening and prevention
Introduction
Human Papillomavirus(HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) around 20 million people are infected with HPV and additional 6.2 million people are newly infected every year. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2003-2004 among sexually active women (57% of 14 to 19 years and 97% of 20 to 59 years) HPV was highest prevalent in youngest age group (40% of 14-19 years and 50% of 20-24 years). Infection rates decrease after age of 24 years. There are more than 100 types of HPV viruses out of which 40 cause genital infections. Out of
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In US cervical cancer is ranked 13th most common cancer in women and 4th among women between 15 to 44 years.
HPV vaccine HPV vaccine was introduced in the U.S. in June 2006. It is a quadrivalent vaccine containing high risk HPV type 16 and 18 and low risk types 6 and 11.CDC recommended use of the vaccine in females of ages through 11 to 12 and catch up immunization in ages 13 through 26 years. This vaccine comprises of three doses given within 6 months. This vaccine prevents infections with HPV type 16 and 18 which are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers. Castle and colleagues did a study to determine the appropriate age for HPV vaccination. They stated that in the United States cervical cancer screening program has achieved 75% reduction in incidence of the cervical cancer and HPV vaccine will only reduce additional cancer cases and other HPV related sequelae such as carcinoma intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 and CIN 3. These are the precancerous lesions. The vaccine will be effective only for those who are never exposed to HPV infection. It will have no use for those who are already infected or exposed.. According to the study the median age for CIN 2/3 lesion was between the ages 25 to 30. If the time since acquiring infection and development of CIN 2/3 is on average 5 to 10 years, HPV vaccine will prevent CIN 2/3 only if given to women before age of 26 years with best results if given before 18 years of age (Castle, et
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