The Hawthrone Studiesdouglas | Mcgregor's Theory X and Theory Y | Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

8393 Words Jul 27th, 2010 34 Pages
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ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT (ES24)

Assignment

The Hawthorne Studies
Douglas McGregorÔÇÖs Theory X and Theory Y
Abraham MaslowÔÇÖs Hierarchy of Needs

The Hawthorne Studies

Hawthorne Studies

The Hawthorne Studies are experiments which inspired Elton Mayo and others to develop the Human Relations Movement. These were conducted by the Western Electric Company of Chicago to measure the impact of different working conditions (such as levels of lighting, payment systems, and
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ÔÇó The workplace is a social system. The Hawthorne researchers came to view the workplace as a social system made up of interdependent parts.

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The Hawthorne Experiments and Employee Motivation

Elton Mayo's studies grew out of preliminary experiments at the Hawthorne plant from 1924 to 1927 on the effect of light on productivity. Those experiments showed no clear connection between productivity and the amount of illumination but researchers began to wonder what kind of changes would influence output.

Variables Affecting Productivity

Specifically, Elton Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through such variables as rest breaks, work hours, temperature and humidity. In the process, he stumbled upon a principle of human motivation that would help to revolutionize the theory and practice of management.

Elton Mayo selected two women, and had those two select an additional four from the assembly line, segregated them from the rest of the factory and put them under the eye of a supervisor who was more a friendly observer than disciplinarian. Mayo made frequent changes in their working conditions, always discussing and explaining the changes in advance.

Relay Assembly

The…