One of the biggest health crises today is obesity epidemic globally specially in the developed countries such as USA. As illustrated in (Figure 1), the population of the developed world showing alarming growth in obesity rate. More than 60% of the population in countries such as the UK and USA are overweight including children. In addition, these figures are expected to increase in the future (Gannon, 2014). The health and economic consequences of obesity is massive. It is known to cause more than 20 serious physiological, psychological, and social diseases such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and depression (Nguygen et al., 2008 & Luppino et al., 2010). The medical cost of obesity annually is estimated to be more than…show more content… However, these recommendation, which commonly accepted in the scientific community, are not enough. Firstly, long-term healthy weight maintenance is unlikely to achieve by diet and exercise-induced weight loss (Buchwald, 2004 & Curioni and Lourenco, 2005). Secondly, the current available pharmacological treatment is usually not realistic solution to obesity as many medicines used for long treatment period, cause many adverse side effects and need to be combined with drastic diet changes such as very low calories diet or so called crash diet (Apfelbaum et al, 1999 & Buchwald, 2004). In addition to that, virtually no single treatment regimen until now can offer a long-term weight maintenance after the treatment period (Michelle, 2013). Finally, weight-loss surgery not suitable for everyone because it is invasive, high-risk surgery and expensive (Saber and Hale, 2014). All these reasons suggest that it is very difficult to archive and maintain healthy weight using these approaches.
3. Fundamental causes to the complex problem
It is commonly known that weight gain is a result of energy intake and expenditure (Zimmermann-Belsing & Feldt-Rasmussen, 2004). So, why it is hard to achieve the objective of obesity treatment?. As one of the famous neuroscientists named Sandra Aamodt suggested in her TED talk 2013: this may be due to the fact that the brain unconsciously controls hunger and energy utilization. This means like many other physiologic features in the human body such as