The History Of Wine Production

3164 Words Nov 5th, 2014 13 Pages
The history of wine production traces back thousands of years, with the earliest evidence of a wine-like drink located in China circa and estimated to be of at 7000 BC. Wine was the center of the agricultural culture of many civilizations like the Romans, the Phoenicians and the Greeks, who considered wine a divine drink of the gods. Wine remains until today one of the largest components of the agricultural production in the Western civilization (Appendix 1).
Grapevine is one of the most economically and socially important crops around the globe. Grapes are used for the production of raising, grape juice, jams and vinegar, but the main end product is wine. It was estimated in 2005 that 65.7% of the production of grapes is being used
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It involves a cooperative genome sequence analysis of the species Vitis Vinifera, one of the most common grapevine species.
The goal of the IGGP is to provide insights into the molecular biology of the species. Using genetic tools, scientists are attempting to modify specific parts of the Vitis genome to produce higher quality wine, disease resistant crops and provide a database for producers to plant the right species with respect to the specific environment of their production site. According to data collected in 2007, half of the grape genome has been mapped, which includes more than 22800 nucleotide sequences and the project is expected to grow even more the next years. The data has been placed in the public databases of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Genetically Disease-Resistant Grapes Following the launch of the IGGP, many groups have attempted to genetically modify grapes. This gene transferring technology has been gaining increasing attention the last few years, with more than 14 labs around the working on it. The main goal of most of the research taking place today is to genetically modify grapes so that they are resistant to various diseases that hurt annually a large percentage of vineyards. Grape diseases include bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases, all of which can be controlled by genetic engineering. One of the most prevalent grape diseases is the infection of the
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