The History of Animation Essay

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The History of Animation

Persistence of vision was discovered in the early 1800's. Our eye and brain retain a visual impression for about 1/30th of a second. Persistence of vision prevents us from noticing that a motion picture screen is dark about half the time, and that a television image is just one bright, fast, discrete dot sweeping the screen. Motion pictures show one new frame (still picture of the movie clip) every 1/24th of a second and the same frame is shown three times during this time period (Persistence, 2001). The eye retains the image of each frame long enough, giving an illusion of smooth, continuous motion. Animation uses exactly the same principle to render the idea of motion.

This led to such devices as the
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Like many of the early animators, he was an accomplished newspaper cartoonist. He redrew each complete image on rice paper mounted on cardboard. He was also the first to experiment with color in animation. Much of his early work was incorporated into vaudeville acts in which he would 'interact' with the animated character on the screen. Similarly, early cartoons often incorporated live action with animated characters. When considering such a popular entertainment format, in order to appreciate the audience reaction the reader should keep in mind the relative naiveté of the viewers at that time; they had no idea how film worked much less what hand- drawn animation was. It was, indeed, magic. The first major technical developments in the animation process can be traced to the work (and patents) of John Bray starting in 1910. His work laid the groundwork for the use of translucent cells ( short for celluloid) in compositing multiple layers of drawings into a final image as well as the use of grey scale (as opposed to black and white) drawings. Later developments by Bray and others enhanced the overlay      dea to include multiple translucent pieces of celluloid (cels), added a peg system for registration, and the drawing of the background on long sheets of paper so that panning (translating the camera parallel to the plane of the background) could be performed more easily. Out of Bray's studio came the likes of Max Fleischer (Betty Boop),

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