The Human Body Is A Complex System, Embedded With Defense

1683 WordsMar 12, 20177 Pages
The human body is a complex system, embedded with defense mechanisms to prevent the invasion of the unknown. Not only does it protect itself from the external breaches, but also has to beware for all the potential things that can go wrong within the system. When a potential threat is detected, a trained army of cells will immediately reach the site and work towards achieving balance; this is called immunity. A particular protein found in certain grains has been causing commotion, and has recently been receiving attention from all over the world. In fact, this protein is gluten, and as the name suggests, it acts as a ‘glue’ to hold the shape of the product it will be incorporated into, like bread and pasta. Gluten is present in many items…show more content…
On the other hand, the immune system of a person with CD would bring the gliadin complex past the defence barrier on the epithelial lining. The epithelial lining is usually in close contact to prevent pathogen from getting past the barrier; however in CD, the cells do not follow the normal mechanism. A macrophage cuts the gliadin and expresses it on the cell surface with MHC II molecules. The role of a macrophage is to maintain immunity by selectively sampling materials in the body by distinguishing self from foreign material via phagocytosis. MHC II molecules vary for different antigens, hence for gliadin, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 molecules are expressed on the surface of the macrophage. The presence of these MHC II molecules attract another set of cell that will lead to inflammation of the epithelial cells, and the production of autoantibodies against gliadin. The inflammation will attract killer cells to the site, which will induce death on the epithelial cells. Due to the destruction of the epithelial lining, gaps will form, allowing more gliadin to pass through the barrier; this will produce a positive feedback as more autoimmune activity and the destruction of epithelial lining persist. The mechanism of celiac disease is complex, hence there are multiple ways of diagnosing this autoimmune disease. Since

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