The Human Immune System Essay

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The immune system plays a vital role in helping the body to fight diseases, as well as pathogens, the disease-causing factors. It is mainly composed of the tonsils and adenoids, the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, the spleen, appendix, and bone marrow. The main purpose of the immune system is to assist the body in its struggle to maintain optimal health. The immune system depends on the body’s structures to help it function. For instance, the skin acts as the “body’s first line of defense.” If a pathogen finds a breach in the skin barrier, it is the circulatory system that must now signal the immune system of the invader. Shortly after, white blood cells will be notified of the infection and will target and destroy the pathogen.…show more content…
“Humoral immunity is a type of immune response that depends on antibodies.” The response begins when a pathogen binds to a B cell. The B cell will engulf the pathogen and display a part of the antigen on its exterior. Once a T cell is exposed to the antigen-presenting B cell, the T cell will release proteins to activate the B cell. Now that the B cell is activated, it will produce antibodies to cause the pathogens to clump together. In the last stage of humoral immunity, phagocytes will engulf and destroy the pathogens. Modern-day advances have allowed scientists to develop methods to control pathogens. The more common methods include the use of antiseptics, antibiotics, and vaccines. By definition, antiseptics are chemicals used to kill pathogens. A few widespread antiseptics include soap, vinegar, and rubbing alcohol. Antiseptics are primarily used for the external destruction of pathogens, while antibiotics and vaccines target internal pathogens. Nevertheless, there are and can be difficulties concerning the use of antibiotics. “As antibiotic use has become more common, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have evolved.” This resistance due to evolution is called antibiotic resistance. It results in the antibiotics having no effect whatsoever on the bacteria, rendering the antibiotics useless. When antibiotic resistance occurs, scientists must resume their search to create a new medicine to can kill the mutant bacteria.
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