The Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Aids )

2117 Words Dec 10th, 2016 9 Pages
Introduction
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is coming from a subgroup of retrovirus called Lentivirus which causes HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) later on among humans. AIDS is a human condition which progresses to the failure of the immune system, causing life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Treatments can be given, but without those, survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. Vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells are the main target of HIV. HIV infection leads to decreased CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms like apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, direct viral killing of infected cells and killing of CD4+ T cells that are infected by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes. When CD4+ T cells decreased into a number below critical level, cell- mediated immunity is lost making the body more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
Transmission of HIV can be of blood as well as body secretions and fluids such as seminal fluid, vaginal fluid and breast milk. The virus can be present as both virus within infected immune cells within these body fluids and free virus particle in the human body.
Medical technology is one of the professions that is very prone to accidental exposure to this blood borne pathogen due to their nature…
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