The Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Aids ) Essay

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Introduction
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is from a sub group from retrovirus called Lentivirus which causes HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a human condition which progresses to the failure of the immune system causing life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending in the HIV subtype. Vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells are the main target of HIV. HIV infection leads to decreased CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms like apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, direct viral killing of infected cells and killing of CD4+ T cells that are infected by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocyte. When CD4+ T cells decreased into a number below critical level, cell- mediated immunity is lost making the body more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
HIV infection is transmitted by transfer of blood, vaginal fluid, semen and breast milk. HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells within these body fluids.
Medical technology is one of the professions that is very prone to accidental exposure to this blood borne pathogen due to their nature of work. In a review made by the World Health organization (WHO) there is increasing evidence that self-testing is
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