The Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Aids ) Essay

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Introduction At the end of 2011, an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 and older were living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that approximately 50,000 people are newly infected with HIV each year (CDC, 2013). Fortunately, after more than 30 years of research on HIV, much progress has been made in fighting this disease. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) transformed what was once a death sentence into a manageable disease for individuals with drug-susceptible viral strains, who have access to antiretroviral drugs, and are compliant with their prescribed therapy. ART not only prolongs life, but also dramatically reduces the rate of HIV transmission (Deeks et al., 2012). Unfortunately, substantial challenges exist to maintain access to and funding for lifelong ART (Dolin et al., 2009; HRSA, 2012; Lewin, 2013), standard therapies do not fully restore health or a normal immune system in HIV-infected individuals, and patients still experience comorbidities, such as increased cardiovascular diseases, bone disorders, and cognitive impairment (Deeks et al., 2012; Hsue et al., 2012; Phillips et al., 2008). It is possible that these HIV-associated complications are due to the toxic effects of treatment or the consequences of persistent inflammation and immune dysfunction (Katlama et al., 2013). Therefore, the International AIDS Society (IAS) convened a team of more than 40 scientists
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