The Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )

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The Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Introduction HIV, also known as the human immunodeficiency virus attacks and destroys the CD4 cells of the immune system. The CD4 are a type of white blood cell that have the role of preventing disease, when the level of these cells reduces due to the HIV virus the ability of the body to fight and prevent disease also reduces; at this stage a person is said to have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs). Epidemiology According to the world health organisation (WHO) there were 35.3 million people living with HIV in 2012. In the same year WHO had reported that 1.6 million had died due AIDs associated illnesses. (WHO, 2014) The country most affected by HIV is Sub Saharan Arica, it was reported…show more content…
(AIDS.gov 2012) Transmission of HIV HIV can pass from person to person, there are many ways in which this happen, the main way in which HIV is transmitted is through sexual contact; according to the Health Protection Agency in 2011, 95% of people diagnosed with HIV acquired the virus through sexual contact. Other ways In which HIV is transmitted include sharing needles, syringes and other injecting equipment, a child can obtain the HIV virus from the mother during child birth or during breast feeding, a less common way is which HIV is passed on in the UK is during blood transfusions however this way of transmission continues to remain a problem is less developed countries. Clinical presentation When the HIV virus first starts to develop, most people experience flu like symptoms such as sore throat, headaches, rash and swollen glands. It’s been reported that about 80% of people that infected with HIV experience this. As the immune system responds to the virus, the level of the CD4 cells start to increase again and because of this many people don’t experience any symptoms for several years. However as the virus continues to spread the CD4 cells continue to be destroyed. Eventually the immune system will be completely damaged if HIV is left untreated. At this stage immunity is lost making a
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