The Impact Of Carbonyl Compounds On The Cardiovascular System

1180 WordsMar 15, 20175 Pages
The impact of carbonyl compounds on the cardiovascular system In addition to nicotine, e-cigarettes emit other potentially harmful constituents like carbonyls that result from thermal degradation of propylene glycol and glycerol; which are the most commonly used solvents in e-liquids [PMCID: PMC5226727]. Several studies reported that aerosols from these devices contain significant levels of carbonyls, including various aldehydes; such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. [PMID: 23467656], [PMID: 24958024]. To this end, although earlier studies that used first generation e-cigarette devices did show that the levels of these constituents are much lower than those found in tobacco smoking, more recent studies in which newer generations…show more content…
Several animal studies suggested that inhalation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde has a negative consequence on the cardiovascular system, either directly or indirectly. Specifically, these studies showed that formaldehyde exposure altered the heart rate [PMID: 3735804], blood pressure [PMID: 418528], cardiac contractility [PMID: 2342227], cardiac oxidative stress and platelet count (PMID: 24040369). Formaldehyde inhalation also induced bradycardia in animals [PMID: 3735804], and this effect was found to be mediated by a sympathetic nerve activity (PMID: 3735804). Additionally, subacute and subchronic inhalation of formaldehyde was associated with cardiac oxidative stress, and consequently a cardic cells damage (PMID: 16716041). With regards to platelets, it was shown that the total platelet count significantly increased in mice exposed to formaldehyde gas for 2 weeks ( PMID: 24040369 ); the potential negative consequence of this effect should be considered in the context of the importance of platelets in maintaining hemostasis, and their role in thrombotic disorders. As for acetaldehyde, elevated blood pressure and heart rate were reported in animals following inhalation of variable doses, which could be due to its sympathomimetic effect (PMID: 5071036, PMID: 5681176). It is noteworthy that while the source(s) of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in these studies were not from e-cigarette vapors, the concentrations used are

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