As a counselor works with clients, one may have to work with a client that are taking psychotropic medication. A client named Kimberly disclosed in a session that she has Bipolar Disorder. She is a 19 year old African American woman. Kimberly has been experiencing symptoms of Bipolar Disorder for three years. Before beginning to take lithium, Kimberly has run away from home, displays erratic behaviors, has using marijuana to relieve symptoms, and attempting suicide when experiencing severe depression. Kimberly has also attempted suicide. Kimberly’s mental illness has affected her relationship with her mother and put a financial strain on the household. Kimberly was arrested and charged with the possession of marijuana.
Since lithium battery is a non-hazardous waste as long as it's disposed when fully or mostly charge, the source of lithium as a hazardous waste is incompletely discharged lithium batteries. Lithium batteries produce this hazardous waste since they contain lithium that becomes dangerous when incompletely discharged. The batteries can be handled as hazardous wastes depending on their reactivity characteristics and hazardous waste attributes. The degree of hazard in lithium battery cells is normally based on several factors including the quantity of accumulated cells, the condition of the cells, storing procedures, transportation, and disposal.
The Efficacy of Lithium in Treating Bipolar Disorder Lithium is a psychotropic drug that became available in 1970 as a mood stabilizing medication for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of manic states, as well as the depression that is concomitant with bipolar disorder. Much research has been done in the short duration of lithium's employment to evaluate its efficacy and side effects. As stated above, "Lithium stabilizes the mood of a bipolar patient, preventing a relapse into either mania or depression" (Kalat, 2004, p.472). Bipolar disorder (also known as manic- depressive illness), is characterized by the presence of the following symptoms: motor
Lithium Carbonate is the most commonly drug that is prescribed for treating bipolar disorder (May, Hickey, Triantis, Palazidou, & Kyriacou, 2015). It works as a mood stabilizer that significantly reduces excessive behaviors and suicidal tendencies. However, the way that lithium exerts its impact on mood is still unknown. One study suggests that key of lithium therapeutic actions are the neuroprotective effects (Malhi, Tanious, Das, Coulston, & Berk 2013). For instance, lithium has been demonstrated to decrease the oxidative stress that involves in multiple episodes of mania and depression. Other study recommends that lithium stabilize electrical
The EPA estimates Americans purchase nearly 3 billion batteries each year (D., 2009). A battery is also known as a voltaic cell, and the energy generated and stored by a battery is actually a result of chemical reactions and not mechanical motion. Batteries are contained in nearly every common electronic device, ranging from small devices like smartphones to larger scale products like automobiles, and chemistry is the driving force behind the function of these batteries.Batteries consist of galvanic cells that carry out the production and storage of electrical energy from chemical reactions. The chemical reactions going on inside of the battery are between the oxidant and reductant of Copper and Zinc metals in there Copper-Zinc Voltaic
Ever felt frustrated because your phone died while you where in the middle of a text, or call, or even trying to take a picture? Thats because you have the wrong battery. This invention fixes that problem. The lithium-ion battery has been around for decades and it is in almost every electronic know to date. They are in all of your phones and computers. This discovery was one of many very important inventions in American History. Lithium batteries have affected both the social and economic aspect of life in America.
1. Lithobid also known as lithium carbonate is used for the treatment of manic episodes associated with Bipolar Disorder. Each extended release tablet contains 300mg of lithium carbonate. Due to its formulation, the lithium carbonate is slowly released into the bloodstream over a period of time with the ultimate goal of reaching serum concentrations between 1.0 and 1.5 mEq/L. It is important to understand the drug formulation because if toxicity occurs, activated charcoal will not bind to an ionic compound like lithium carbonate.
Lithium is an extremely resourceful element that can help with a wide variety of things. Without lithium, the world would not have many of it’s greatest inventions today. Along with many uses, it also has a rich history and extensive benefits. Without it, the world wouldn’t have some of the most advanced inventions that exist today. Lithium is a resourceful element that helps with the advancement of mental illness treatments, building of airplanes, and many purification processes.
ChosenEvery ore deposit is a non-renewable resource. Having said that it is the job of technology to make the price of a metal competitive, affordable. Initially when not much in demand the technology of mining it, extraction needs to pick up bringing its price down. Later demand may push up its price and the extra expenditure for adding to its supply may become unaffordable, making it appear non-renewable. A stage will come when a particular metal or more metals may have to be recycled as the quantum of it is fixed in nature.
Lisa was a little girl that had some behavior’s problems and her parents looked for help of a psychologist. Lisa was five-years-old when she was diagnosed with hyperactive, violent toward to others, and self-destructive behavior. Under this diagnostic, the psychologist tried different methods available at that time, such as counseling, behavior modification techniques, Ritalin, and other drugs. However, the drug called lithium was the only medication that helped to control Lisa’s behavior problem. Lithium was a last option medication and the dosage was adjusted to manage Lisa’s behavior. Without the medicine, Lisa’s condition was dangerous to others and to herself, so it was necessary to take the medicine during five years. After five years, Lisa’s
Lithium-ion batteries are made from lithium; hence the name. Since lithium is an unstable metal, lithium ions must be made through chemicals. Lithium is used because it is the lightest metal with the highest electrochemical potential. Inside these batteries are a positive electrode called the cathode, an anode or the negative electrode and lithium ions. Theses lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive when it’s being used and vice versa when it’s being charged. For the electrodes not to be combined, there is a separator in between the negative and positive electrodes. Another type of battery is a alkaline batteries, which is made out zinc and manganese dioxide. Alkaline batteries works like other batteries. There is a negative electrode, zinc powder, a positive electrode, manganese dioxide, an electrolyte, potassium hydroxide, a separator, and a brass pin. Once the electrolytes are added, a chemical reaction happens when the manganese dioxide oxidizes and allows the zinc and manganese dioxide to combine to form electricity in the battery. Zinc carbon batteries is another type of battery that is made of carbon and zinc. This battery works when the carbon rod, cathode, in the center collects electrons from the anode, shell of the battery that consists of zinc chloride, part of the battery, which creates a circuit. An electrolyte paste made from ammonium chloride surrounds a piece a paper that keeps the electrons moving and causes the battery to produce
A lot of information from different sources was gathered with the purpose of comparing different Li-ion batteries mechanisms, cathode and anode materials, structure and fabrication procedures, and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
Like all exploitation of natural resources, the mining activity causes impacts on the environment both in the exploitation of natural areas and waste generation. It intensely alters the mined area and the surrounding areas, where deposits of waste and tailings are made. Furthermore, when we have the presence of harmful chemicals in the ore processing stage, this could mean a serious problem from an environmental point of view (de Freitas, 2014).