The Impact Of Mmp On New Zealand

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Since MMP has been implemented into New Zealand, it has allowed for a wider diversity of parties to be in parliament. On account of that, while it is still possible for a party to win the majority seats in parliament, it is very difficult to do so; Church (2015) states that this has not happened in the last four elections. As a result, MMP has impacted on the relationship between the executive and parliament by making the executive to make arrangements between themselves and minor parties, in order to stay in power. This is also for the executive to be able to pass votes of confidence and supply, as well as get potential Bills that they want implemented, to be passed through parliament. Since 2008, John Key, Prime Minister and leader of the National party has had “enhanced confidence and supply arrangements” with minor parties, consisting of United Future, ACT and Maori party, in order to stay in the executive. An enhanced confidence and supply arrangement, is when the minor parties are appointed ministerial posts outside of cabinet, and only be bound by cabinet responsibility when it involves their portfolio or have been involved in an development of policy that ended with an agreed position. As Boston and Bullock (2009) note, these enhanced arrangement is very unusual, as New Zealand is the only country to have these in politics. Sweden has experimented with similar arrangements, termed “contract parliamentarians,” however it did not include members of non-government
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