The Impact Of Social Behaviors On Human Behavior

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Introduction Group behaviour, also known as gregarious behaviour, occurs in a wide variety of animals including, but not limited to, invertebrates (Ritz, 1994), fish (Shaw, 1970), birds (Lack, 1968), wildebeests (Gueron and Levin, 1993), lions (Bertram, 1975), and primates (Nakagawa, 1990). Benefits of group living include improved reproductive success, increased foraging success, and improved predation survival (Hamilton, 1971; Reluga and Viscido, 2005). Social behaviours evolve when the benefits of group living outweigh the costs (Fleagle, 2013). Predation risk is lowered in social groups by confusing the predator so the predator’s success decreases (Hall et al., 1986; Smith and Warburton, 1992), by providing improved vigilance – more…show more content…
Group living in animals can be an act of selfish behavior, one of the reasons being the reduced risk of predation (Morrell and James, 2008). Species that show this behaviour include sticklebacks (Krause and Tegeder, 1994), banded killifish (Hoare et al., 2004), toad tadpoles (Watt et al., 1997; Spieler and Linsenmair, 1999) and ocean skaters (Foster and Treherne, 1981). By keeping close to others and forming a group, an animal can benefit from collective vigilance, predator confusion, and the dilution risk, all which reduce the chance of predation to that individual (Morrell and James, 2008; Krause and Ruxton, 2002). Selfish herd theory The selfish herd theory was developed by Hamilton and is widely excepted as a explanation for the selfish grouping of animals (Morrell and James, 2008). The Selfish herd theory states that individuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other individuals between themselves and predators resulting in groups of animals (Hamilton, 1971). Hamilton’s proposed theory contrasted the hypothesis that evolution of such social behaviour was based on mutual benefits to the population (Hamilton, 1971). An animal may join a group for its own selfish reasons, seeking to push the risk of being a victim of predation onto other members (Breed and Moore, 2011). In groups, predation risk is greatest on the outside edge and lower towards the
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