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The Impact Of Stem Extra Curricular Activities On Student Involvement

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This literature review focuses on three different areas related to this program evaluation: 1. the achievement gap of underprivileged minorities in STEM academic subject areas and careers, 2. the impact of STEM extra-curricular activities on student involvement, interest and ultimately achievement in the subject areas, and 3. the important role makerspaces fill in addressing the need for positive, out-of-school experiences for underprivileged youth. In addition, the review will also cover what successful research methodologies have been employed to study similar topics in the past.
Present state of underprivileged minorities in education and the economy
STEM occupations are predominantly populated by White males. Whites and Asians are overrepresented in STEM fields, making up 71% and 14.5 % of the STEM workforce respectively while Hispanics are at 7% and Blacks at 6% (Landivar, 2013). This lack of representation puts underrepresented minorities at an economic disadvantage as STEM fields are expected to increase by 17% by 2020 as compared to non-STEM jobs that are expected to increase by 9.8% (Langdon, McKittrick, Beede, Kahn, & Doms, 2011). STEM jobs have remarkably better job security. In 2010, the unemployment rate nationwide bordered around 10 percent while STEM workers had a rate of 5.3 percent (Cover, 2011). Likewise, the average wage for all STEM occupations was $77,880 in May of 2009 while the US average for non-STEM jobs was $43,460 (Cover, 2011). It should be
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