The Importance Of A 3d Supportive Structure

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As mentioned before, in tissue regeneration is of crucial importance the use of a 3D supportive structure because when cells are seeded into these scaffolds enables the proliferation of cells and chondrogenic differentiation; and with it the three-dimensional tissue formation. Scaffolds must be able to withstand physiological loading until sufficient tissue regeneration occurs. Moreover, the material must be sufficiently porous to allow for effective transport of nutrients. Finally, it should be biocompatible and, if biodegradable, degrade as the tissue matrix is produced leaving only nontoxic degradation products.
When using biomaterial scaffolds in tissue-engineered constructs the 3D environment of the extracellular matrix is being
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General scaffold requirements are shown in table 4:

Scaffold Requirements: Biological and material basis:
Biocompatibility To prevent adverse inflammatory or immune responses.
Cell attachment To optimize cell seeding for delivery and retention of cells and promote maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype.
Porous 3D environment Support cell migration, proliferation and ECM production. High surface area to volume ratio.
Interconnected/permeable Maximize nutrient/waste exchange and limit oxygen gradients.
Biodegradation Preferably in harmony with desired repair or regeneration process, whereby, by-products are metabolized or excreted from the body without eliciting an inflammatory response.
Bioactivity/gene delivery Act as a cell carrier or control the release of growth factors, transfection vectors and/or genetically modified cells.
Mechanical integrity and integration Sufficient to support or match surrounding native tissue at site of implantation, as well as mediate mechanical stimulus to cells during loading.
Structural anisotropy Promote native anisotropic tissue structure.
Size and Shape Reproducibly create scaffold of clinically relevant size and shape.
Surgical application Preferably allow minimally invasive techniques using injectable/flexible scaffold
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