The Importance Of Cellular And Cellular Signals Regulating Vascularization Of The Embryonic Heart
917 WordsFeb 16, 20154 Pages
After thickening of chamber walls during cardiac embryogenesis, oxygen and nutrients can no longer be passively diffused into cardiac cells, therefore, a primitive vascular develops to supply these vital resources. The plexus then further matures into coronary arteries and veins which ensures continued development of the heart. However, the vasculogenesis of these coronary blood vessels is not fully understood and has been a topic of intense research and debate. Over time, various models have been proposed, indicating the importance of cellular and molecular signals regulating vascularization of the embryonic heart. Interestingly, research has highlighted the contribution of extra cardiac cells which migrates and differentiates in the heart.
Keywords: Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, embryogenesis, VEGF, anatomical variations.
Introduction Much of what is known about the origin of cells that make up the coronary vascular network comes from immuno-histochemical analyses, quail-chick chimera experiments, retroviral labelling, gene targeting experiments and, more recently, lineage tracing studies. Interestingly, not a single cell that makes up the coronary system of the heart arises from the heart. All of this happens without ever tapping into the blood that courses through the primitive heart tube (Mu et al., 2005; David et al., 2002). Within the past two decades much progress has been made into elucidating the molecular principles initiating and regulating coronary vessel