Human papillomavirus is currently affecting the entire US population without discrimination. To mitigate this, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adolescent girls be required to vaccinate at age 11 – 12 while boys were optional (Kepka et al., 2016). Today, adolescent boys are required to vaccinate too. The focus of this research is about adolescent boys age 12 – 15 in the United States (US). However, the study is not focused on assessing the population at risk. Instead, the focus will be on the state and territory immunization programs that are responsible for meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals for HPV vaccination in males. The sample size will be extracted from the population.
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is very common throughout the United States and worldwide (World Health Organization (WHO), 2016). There are over 100 different forms of the virus with 13 of these types being capable of causing cancer (WHO, 2016). HPV can lead to the development of serious health problems. Theses health problems are especially an issue for adolescent women due to the highly increasing STD rates among this age group (Kostas-Polston, Johnson-Mallard & Berman, 2012). There is a vaccine for many of the common types of HPV, however, many parents are refusing to vaccinate their daughters for various reasons. With the rising cases of STDs, less birth
HPV is by far the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 50 percent of all sexually active men and women will get it at some point in their lives, and 20 million already have it. A vaccine is available that prevents 70% of cervical cancers that arise from sexual intercourse. The human papillomavirus is unknowingly common and is diagnosed in 10,000 women a year, causing 4,000 deaths per year (“HPV Question and Answers”). If we take the responsibility to vaccinate young girls and boys, to be safe, we can eliminate many unnecessary deaths. This vaccine is a great discovery that should be put to good use, the HPV vaccine should be mandated in young teens everywhere.
The incidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in my local community Lockport, Illinois is one out of every five people have HPV and due to the vaccinations to prevent HPV, Illinois ranks 48th among the United States for incidences of HPV (Manchir, 2013). HPV is a sexually transmitted infection that is transmitted through sexual contact. HPV is transmitted during vaginal, oral, or anal sex and on rare occasions, through birth during delivery (Illinois Department of Public Health [IDPH], 2013). Surprisingly, 50 percent of men and women that are active sexually will acquire HPV during their lifetime! HPV has affected 20 million Americans and an astounding, six million additional people will become infected every year (Illinois Department of Public Health [IDPH], 2013). Although Lockport Illinois has a lower amount of people with HPV, as a public health nurse, I realize this is an issue that needs to be addressed in my local community. Awareness is the key to prevention. Teenagers, parents, and all adults need to
Prophylactic vaccination against high risk human papilloma virus 16 and 18 represents an exciting means of protection against HPV related malignancy. However, this strategy alone, even if there is a level of cross protection against other oncogenic viruses, cannot completely prevent cervical cancer. In some countries cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by up to 80 percent although this decline has now reached a plateau with current cancers occurring in patients who have failed to attend for screening or where the sensitivity of the tests have proved inadequate. Cervical screening is inevitably associated with significant anxiety for the many women who require investigation and treatment following abnormal cervical cytology. However, it is vitally important to stress the need for continued cervical screening to complement vaccination in order to optimize prevention in vaccines and prevent cervical cancer in older women where the value of vaccination is currently unclear. It is likely that vaccination will ultimately change the natural history of HPV disease by reducing the influence of the highly oncogenic types HPV 16 and 18. In the long term this is likely to lead to an increase in recommended screening intervals. HPV vaccination may also reduce
In June 2006, Gardasil, a Human Papillomavirus vaccine made by Merck & Co., was licensed for use and brought to the market (“HPV Vaccine”). Gardasil, which is given into a series of three injections, targets the main types of HPV. The types targeted are HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 16 and HPV 18, which cause ninety percent of the genital warts and are the leading causes of cervical cancer (“Cervical Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Treatments”). Brought to the attention by researchers “combined, those strains affect an estimated 3 million women in the U.S” (“HPV Vaccine”). Since HPV is so common in the United States, the makers of Gardasil are trying to get a law approved that will make the shots mandatory. In 2006,
While personal choice concerns to those who oppose the HPV vaccine, promiscuity concerns them the most. Many parents, women support groups, and religious leaders worry that mandating the vaccine will give teenagers one less reason to abstain from sexual activities. The
Looking at the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, and autonomy we can evaluate the requirement of the HPV vaccination through the ethical theory of principlism. The principle of autonomy indicates that people should make their own choices and decisions, but this law would be forcing someone to make a decision regarding their lifestyle choices, not from a student’s presence in a school classroom. The principle of beneficence, which is doing good, however does support the case in which HPV does prevent some strains of cervical cancer and genital warts. There are potential harms that fall under the principle of non-maleficence however, there could be less pap smear exams given if the student feels they are now insusceptible to developing cervical cancer. The HPV disease is sexually transmitted therefore it is unreasonable to require
The HPV vaccine reception has been similar to that of the hepatitis vaccine in that both are seen as an attack on morality, and are considered by some as a license for promiscuity. In the book Vaccine Allen quotes, ‘ “ If a 10- or 12-year-old is given a vaccine to protect against a sexually transmitted disease, then it’s implied they’d be engaging in risky sexual behavior,” said Pia de Solenni, director of “life and women’s issues” for the Family Research Council’ (433). The fact that HPV lives in the sexual organs and is spread by sexual intercourse or intravenous drug use has caused many parents to come to the belief that their children are not at risk. Some parents go so far as to suggest that if
In an online survey, the survey administrator and his team asked over fifteen hundred parents of 11-17 year old children whether they agreed that laws requiring HPV vaccination for sixth grade school entry were “a good idea” about half of the parent believed the HPV vaccine, was at least as important as the Tdap and Meningococcal vaccines, the other two recommended for adolescent, only forty percent believed the vaccine prevented cervical cancer. Nearly a quarter of the parents inaccurately believed the vaccine might cause long term health problems and one
HPV vaccinations have been involved in some heated debates involving the general public and the government for some time now; whether the vaccine is worth being administered to young girls is the underlying question and if so at what cost. In the articles “HPV Vaccine Texas Tyranny” and “The HPV Debate” both authors Mike Adams and Arthur Allen provide enlightening information on why the HPV vaccinations should not be mandated through legislation, Adams conveys his bias and explains how the government is over stepping its boundaries when it comes to the publics’ health while Allen on the other hand, is more opt to present analytical data on previous cases similar to the one he is currently facing.
The Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the virus responsible for cervical cancer. It is one the most common viral sexually transmitted infections. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV vaccination of girls have become sources of controversy for parents of school-aged youth, legislators, members of the medical community, and the public at large (Cooper et al. 2010).
HPV vaccinations bring up many public health and ethical issues. Some states want to require vaccines for school attendance. In the academic journal article “HPV Vaccination’s Second Act: Promotion, Competition, and Compulsion”, author Jason Schwartz states that, “Although some argue that HPV vaccines should never be mandated for school attendance, the temptation for policymakers to revisit this ethical and policy debate must be resisted until HPV vaccination has successfully become a routine, trusted component of adolescent medical care” (Schwartz). This train of thought exemplifies the opposition to HPV vaccination in this country, which restricts us in immunizing possible victims as effectively as possible. If the ignorance towards the vaccine continues, there will not be a powerful impact in decreasing rates of HPV infections.