The Indian Independence Movement

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The history of the Indian Independence Movement against the British in the 20th Century was evidently influenced and motivated by the underlying differences and perceptions of communal identities. The freedom struggle in essence was also an assertion of the interests and aspirations of the diverse communities of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League were the two big powers that sought to mobilize public sentiments in the quest for Independence. While the Muslim League (formed in 1906), stood as a symbol of Islamic nationalism, the INC on the other hand was seen as pro-Hindu (with a strong influence of radical groups like the Hindu Mahasabha). Mohammad Ali Jinnah, initially a Congress nationalist, joined the Muslim League in 1913 in order to align the views of the two communities in their collective struggle for freedom. The result was The Lucknow Pact which laid down the constitutional framework of seat and power sharing arrangements for elections to the Provincial Legislative Councils. Muslims were provided with separate electorates and one third representation in the Central government. Congress that claimed to fight only for secular goals and considered religion as a private matter of individual granted the separate electorates for Muslim went against their very own ideologies. This lead to the settlement of differences between the two parties and immediate goal of both the parties through the pact called for greater autonomy as a
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