Moreover, NEPs will provide sterile needle and syringes to avoid exchanges of used injections between drug users. Since NEPs are implemented, the number of HIV cases and other diseases are declined. In Saskatchewan, distributing needles reduces the total costs for health care because needle exchange programs reduce the transmission of HIV by one-third and accommodate a return of four thousand dollars investment in health care costs. (Thompson) Needle exchange program provide safety not only in drug addicts but also provide safety in the community. Many of needle exchange programs perform a one-for-one basis to decrease the exposure of contaminated needles in streets and playgrounds so that children and other people are away from needle sticks accident. (Franciscus)
“Let’s create an AIDS/HIV-free generation”, which is not only a slogan that was proposed by President Obama but also a goal that I would like to achieve on my future career path. My practicum project at the Department of Health and Human Services was to generate dataset of new AIDS/HIV cases in Houston/Harris area required by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and then to use ArcGIS software to make a map describing the new diagnosed in Houston area. The final products can be spatially lined to other sources to enhance understanding of social determinants of health affecting populations impacted by HIV. This practicum experience let me realize that AIDS spreads so quickly is because most people have insufficient knowledge or misconception about the disease and prevention. Becoming a pharmacist to provide prevention service and educate people to improve their health and wellbeing is how I want to reach the goal of creating an AIDS/HIV-free generation.
Several studies have shown that injection drug users lower their risk of transmitting infectious diseases when there is a needle exchange program available. There has not been a valid study of whether or not the amounts of time needles are returned to the exchange programs are harmful to communities. The Journal of Public Health, conducted surveys, evidence from needle exchange sites, jails, and institutions that needle exchange programs are effective in reducing illnesses such as HIV and AIDS (Burt & Theide, 2016). Furthermore, Reepalu, Blome, Bjork, Widell, & Bjorkman (2012), researched the same individuals for 20 years, with no breaks. Their studies concluded that injection drug use, not only heightens the risk for HIV and AID’s, there is also an increase in Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. However, there studies showed that there is not an increase rate of cancer diagnoses due to injection drug use. In a study conducted by Bonar and Rosenberg (2014), they wanted to see if self-initiated harm strategies, such as: proper needle sterilization techniques, proper disposal of needles, and cleaning of the pre injected skin, could help improve the health of those that use drugs intravenously. Their study was conducted over an eight-month period, results showed that their
An increase in drug use, specifically opiates, has overwhelmed the United States. This behavior has led to a rise in the transmission of HIV/Hepatitis C which would be otherwise preventable. The needle exchange programs in Moorhead, Milwaukee, and Scott County are working to lower the transmission rate and increase participation in treatment programs.
Imagine that you are the pilot of a plane traveling to a new and exciting destination. Early in the journey the plane takes off and soars high into the sky where you feel like you are on top of the world, looking down from above at all of the beauty underneath you. On the way to your destination you are anxious and full of excitement in anticipation of the new journey that you are about to experience when all of the sudden your plane starts to shake and you find yourself losing control. At this point you have two options: You can try to change course to regain control and make it through the turbulence or you can continue with what you are doing and let the plane spiral to the ground in a firey crash. This scenario is similar to the life
Although these clients will still be abusing illegal substances, Sheon (2004) indicated that any reduction of harm is a step in the right direction, and the amount of success is measured by the client’s quality of life and well-being (as cited in Brown et al., 2005). “Harm reduction is about being respectful in somebody else’s world” (Georgina Perry, Service manager and co-author, England as cited in Cusick et al., 2010). By not respecting somebody else’s choices, the clients feel they must lie about their unhealthy lifestyles, which prevents the clients from getting assistance because they were trying to protect themselves from the real situation (Georgina Perry, Service manager and co-author, England as cited in Cusick et al., 2010). A way to reduce the harm from illegal substance abuse is clean needle exchange, and teaching clients how to properly inject themselves (Brown et al., 2005). The needle exchange is a program where clients exchange their used needles for clean ones, which helps reduce the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS (Brown et al., 2005). With continuation of these programs the harm from abusing illegal substances is reduced and the spread of life threatening diseases, such as HIV,
Imagine for a moment being able to walk down the street without seeing used needles or other drug equipment. Although it will not completely eradicate the problem, safe injection sites will allow users to have a safe and clean environment that they do not have access to now; not just to inject their drugs, but also to dispose of their used syringes. When given a 3-year trial at the first facility in Canada, it was found that fatal overdoses within 500 metres of the facility were reduced by 35 percent, and a 9 percent decrease in the rest of the city (Stueck, 2011). Thus proving the effectiveness of injection facilities not only in Vancouver, but nationwide. Giving access to support can significantly increase the quality of life for intravenous drug users. By providing sterile equipment the
According to the World Health Organization, “globally there are approximately 16 million people that inject drugs and 3 million of them are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).” Once someone is infected with HIV, it is almost always fatal since there is currently no cure for the disease. A major component of HIV prevention is the Syringe Exchange Programs (SEP’s). SEP’s are one of the main resolutions that targets curbing the spread of blood-borne viruses among injecting drug users (IDU’s). With an estimated 1 in 5 injecting drug users worldwide infected with HIV, the program is vital to bringing this epidemic under control. 60 countries worldwide have reported HIV among IDUs and an additional 40 countries report a rash of
In conclusion, methadone clinics and needle exchange programs have many stigmas linked to them due to the biases that have been associated with these programs in the past. The programs are trying to create ways to encourage more drug users to use the programs available especially the needle exchange program for those who inject
Sharing of needles used by injection drug users contributes heavily to the spread of blood-borne diseases, accounting for almost one third of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa (Ball, 2007). Various studies support that blood-borne disease transmission and contraction are strongly linked to injection drug use. A study conducted by Semaan et al. that analyzed data of 10,301 persons who inject drugs in revealed that 32% had shared syringes during the 12 months prior (Semaan et al., 2011). A second study involving 309 injection drug users found HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevalence of 42.4%, 80.9%, and 74.1%, respectively. The study also revealed that 63.8% of the participants engaged in indirect sharing practices within six months prior.
If needle exchange programs will be banned in United States than it will cause even greater stigma towards needle sharing practices. Even today, in the 21st century due restriction policies and laws against publically available injecting equipment, most people developed a negative attitude towards a needle exchange programs. As was mentioned by Dr. Epidemiol, most of the time individuals that engage in needle sharing practices would not report the fact of needle sharing , even if it indeed occurred. Less drug users would report it because most people feel stigmatized if they tell in public about the act of needle sharing.
Today, experts in public health policy have been advocated for harm reduction, which is a philosophy that attempts to reduce the negative outcomes of drug use. Safe injection sites (SISs) follow this ideology. They are facilities where addicts are legally able to use opioids, such as heroin, under medical supervision. To stop reusing and sharing of needles, Opioid users will be given access to clean needles, which will prevent hospitalizations from serious infections and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Furthermore, opioid addicts will have a clean space and will not fear being arrested by the police. This will eliminate additional anxiety and stress. Advocates for SISs believe that SISs will reduce public drug use and provide a safe space for addicts to consume illicit drugs. They have been successful in many developed countries. In many studies, it has been shown that SISs save taxpayers money and reduce the number of opioid-related deaths.
The group as a whole believes that harm reduction policy promotes public health. Those who are contrary to the police believe programs like the needle exchange program and methadone clinics promote the abuse of drugs. The harm reduction approach intends to treat and educate addicts in hopes they will stop the abuse and decrease the rate of disease. Not all drug addicts are criminals, and those who are not criminals may actually have a “true” addiction or illness. Instead of criminally charging those individuals, the policy is trying to connect with them to get the actual help they need. For years now, the United States has attempted to ban such drug use with no success. The government should be aware that it would cost them less to promote programs, such as the needle exchange program, verses paying to treat addicts who have contracted HIV from drug use. As long as drugs are being distributed on the streets, there will always be individuals who will abuse them.
Beilenson and his team lobbed the rest of the year, focusing their discussions on each county’s needs and views to win more votes. With the statistics and the discussion that focused on each county, Beilenson was able to win enough votes and win the governor’s approval to get the law passed and establish the needle exchange program in Baltimore (Beilenson, 67). In my opinion I agree that the needle exchange program should be established. I think that the program is great to offer, needles, HIV tests, everything they need to use drugs safely not only helps the drug addicts but the people who are around them. I think that these programs have helped decrease the spread of HIV/AIDS and will continue to do so in the future. I disagree that the program makes it easier for addicts to pursue their illegal habits because; they are not supplying the drugs, but rather helping decrease the spread of disease. Most of the addicts don’t want to quit using drugs, the ones that do have the help with this program, but the people who don’t will use dirty used needles which then will increase the spread of
Worldwide and in more than 80 cities in 38 US states, NEP has emerged to address the risks of injection drug use. There are currently 113 NEPs in the US, and in Hawaii, the NEP is funded by the State Health Department. The NEP offers drug treatment referral, methadone clinic and a peer education program to teach IDUs the benefits of not sharing needles. HIV rates among injecting drug users have declined 5% in 1989 to 1.1% in 1994-96. From 1993-1996, 74% of NEP clients reported no needle sharing, and 44% of those who report sharing admitted that the used needles were previously cleaned with bleach. Harm Reduction Central in Hollywood, CA, reported a low rate of shared needles of young IDUs, specifically those of ages