The Innate Immune System Analysis

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The immune system is comprised of the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. When pathogens invade the body passing through one of the body’s natural defenses such as the surface barrier, the skin, the innate immune system goes on the defensive. The innate immune system responds near the pathogens point of entry. The innate immune system initial response is inflammation, “caused by the release of chemicals from damaged cells (Pinel, 2014). Cytokines are proteins released by cells to assist in regulating the response to pathogens. “Cytokines attract white blood cells, leukocytes, and other cells that fight pathogens, known as phagocytes” (Pinel, 2014). It is theorized that phagocytosis, the process in which phagocytes destroy pathogens, is one of the first immune reactions to have evolved to known vertebrates and invertebrates (Pinel, 2014).
The adaptive immune system consists of primary cells known as lymphocytes, which are specialized white blood cells manufactured in both bone marrow and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system is the storage unit of the lymphocytes until they are needed to fight pathogens. The major classes of lymphocytes, B cells and T cells manage antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediate immunity, respectively. T cells respond to antigens on a cells’ membrane binding to infected macrophage triggering several reactions simultaneously. Including, the reproduction of more T cells with the specific receptor necessary to destroy the pathogens (Pinel, 2014).
The second part of the immune system is the adaptive immune system, occurring when B cells attaches to an antigen when it has an appropriate receptor to fight the antigen. B cells replicate to manufacture antibodies. “The antibodies
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Ananya Mandal, M. (2013, December 3). What are Cytokines? Retrieved December 1, 2015, from msimmunology:
Pinel, J. P. (2014). Biopsychology (9th ed.). New York:
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