The Iranian Language Essay

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Today the Iranian languages are spoken from Central Turkey, Syria and Iraq in the west to Pakistan and the western edge of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China in the east. In the North, its outposts are Ossetic in the central Caucasus and Yaghnobi and Tajik Persian in Tajikistan in Central Asia, while in the South they are bounded by the Persian Gulf, except for the Kumzari enclave on the Masandam peninsula in Oman.
Historically, the New Iranian stage overlaps with the Islamization of Iranian-speaking lands in the seventh century CE. The Middle Iranian stage began in the third century BCE. The oldest stages go back to the beginning of the second millennium BCE. The oldest physical document of Iranian is the Old Persian inscription by
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The later Iranians moved into and across the Iranian plateau, both carrying the new social structure with their languages, with a lasting impact on the socio-political structures of Iran and Afghanistan, and the subcontinent.
The Iranians on their part can probably be correlated with the subsequent so-called Yaz I culture in the BMAC complex, which reflects major cultural changes towards a more rural society after 1 500 BCE. They apparently remained in Central Asia, and only by the end of the second millennium BCE began to spread over the Iranian plateau. By the second half of the eighth century BCE, Iranian Median and Persian tribes (Mada and Parswa) had already been long established among the original non-Iranian speakers of the Zagros mountain ranges of Iranian Kurdestan, according to the records of the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser III (r. 858-824 BCE). Minorsky (1957: 78) recognized that the name of the tiny village Qal'a Paswe near Solduz in Kurdestan retains the memory of the Iranian settlements (cf. also Zadok 200 1; 2002). The successors of the Parswa tribes who settled in the southwest of the Iranian plateau created the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 558-330 BCE) which, beginning with the Sasanian period (224-6 5 1 CE) and thereafter, ultimately resulted in the dominance of Persian over the Iranian expanse.
While the Iranian plateau was increasingly Iranianized, the Iranian tribes known as Scythians by the Greek
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