After the death of Abu Bakr the Caliphate was handed seamlessly to Omar bin Al-Khattab in 643 and he ruled for ten years. His transmission to power was seamless because he was practising power “behind the scenes”.Many would consider his administration of the Islamic nation as successful and flourishing. After Muslims victory against the Byzantine in the battle of Yarmuk empire, provided them with more land -Palestine and Syria- which helped Muslims with the territorial expansion. Later, one of the richest cities in the Middle East, Alexandria have surrendered to the Muslims too. The way Omar administered the territories of the Muslim state is in a fashion where the people of the new conquered territories continue to live the way they used to. Moreover, these newly conquered places would pay less money when compared to the previous administration. Not only that, but also, “when it became apparent that Muslim rule meant religious freedom as well as lower taxes, the Arab had little difficulty in obtaining cooperation from some of the local people.”Which made the newly conquered areas satisfied with
A change that occurred in the political life of Islamic civilization was the shift from the election of a Caliphate to a more dynastical system. Previously, the caliphates were elected by the Islamic community. Capable leaders were preferred over heirs who were not as qualified. Sunni Muslims were firm believers of this concept, while Shia muslims believed that Ali should’ve
The Islamic empire expanded in many different ways. One of the ways the Islamic Empire expanded is conquering land. In document A Islam killed the Greeks and conquered some of their land. This means that that the Greeks were taken over by Islam so Islam had more land than before. Another way the Islamic Empire expanded was they made a treaty with Tudmir. In document B “The slaves will not be killed or forced in any way but will be slaves.” This means that Islam had a truce with Tudmir. Islam will have a bigger civilization from getting more slaves/warriors from getting slaves from conquered
When Muhammad died, Muslims faced the challenge of creating institutions to preserve the community. This is the Middle period of Islam. Muslims believe that the revelation was completed with the work of Muhammad, who is described as the seal of the prophets. The leaders after Muhammad were described only as caliphs, or successors to the Prophet, and not as prophets themselves. The first four caliphs were companions of the Prophet and their period of rule (632-661) is described by the majority of Muslims as the age of the Rightly Guided Caliphate. This was an era of expansion during which Muslims conquered the Sasanid (Persian) Empire and took control of the North African and Syrian territories of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. The Muslim community was transformed from a small city-state controlling much of the Arabian Peninsula into a major world empire, in this case the Umayyad empire, extending from northwest Africa to central Asia. The emphasis
Islam: Empire of Faith is a pretty general documentary about a large history of Islam in such a short viewing time. Sometimes the moving picture media can have a different effect than the static reading media. I think this is a great counter to the normal textbook learning that occurs during class. While reading about the beginning Islam, I felt more of an oppression of Muhammad as he was trying to get his word of God out to the people around him. When he left Mecca it was not pleasant but it didn’t seem like he was going to die before he left. When he returned to Mecca with his followers it just seemed like he was a returning son, back with good news. When presented with the video evidence of the process, it seemed that his desire to let
Have you ever wondered how early empires grew so big and were successful? The Muslims expanded their civilization in many ways, which is important because they wanted to spread their religion and expand the empire. The early Islamic Empire expanded by conquering other lands, making people feel comfortable in the territory, as well as keeping their army strong and their citizens loyal.
Ever since 636 CE, the Muslims have been expanding the Islamic Empire. How exactly did the Muslims expand their Islamic Empire? In Document A, the Muslims expanded the Islamic Empire by leaving Mecca to Yarmuk to have a battle. When the Muslims won the battle, they cut off the non- Muslims arms and took over the city. This battle was one way that the Early Islamic Empire expanded. In document B, The Treaty of Tudmir also lead to the expansion of the Early Islamic Empire. The Treaty of Tudmir was a treaty that did not force religion, nor burn down their churches. It also stated that they would not take away their sacred objects or give shelter to fugitives and their enemies. This was another way that the Early Islamic Empire expanded because
In the 7th century A.D., Islamic faith was charging through the Middle East. Many reasons are to credit for the rise of Islamic faith. However the muslims attacks on other nations, Islamic beliefs and trade were the key contributors into the rise of the Islamic religion. There army would lay waste to other nations.Also the Islamic beliefs were intriguing and the city of Mecca was in the middle of a bunch of trade routes which helped spread the religion.
Chapter 14 in the book Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective of the Past by Herrry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler is mainly about Muhammad, the prophet, and his world, the expansion of Islam, economy and society of the early Islamic world, and its values and cultural exchanges.
Islam is a major world religion. Its origin can be traced back to 610 CE in Arabia. The basis of this religion is the revelations to the prophet Mohammad. Dissatisfied with his life, he traveled to deserts, hills, and the wilderness surrounding Mecca, where he lived, to meditate and reflect. He became a new man through his revelations, which many of his followers believe Allah transmitted to him through his angel Gabriel. Islam was originally an Arab religion, but many different beliefs and practices were added to it, making it extremely popular and aiding in its rapid spread. This new religion spread to many different areas surrounding Arabia, both under Mohammad and after his death. The Muslim Empire grew to encompass Spain and
A caliph is the chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. Sunni and Shiite split the old caliph died, also because Muhammad did not leave clear instructions on who should be next caliph and everyone wanted their family to be the next caliph. A schism happened between the Shiites and the Sunni because they couldn't decide who should be the next caliph. “Caliph is a religious and political leader of the Muslim community” This is important because it means whoever is caliph has the most power in the Islamic culture.
Historians, specifically American historians of the 21st century have demonstrated an interest in the Middle East in Islam, due to Americans frequent contact with the Middle East in the early 1960s. Islam and the Middle East have played a remarkable role in Americans discussion and reaction to the events that took place on September 11th, 2001. During this time Americans were beginning to regard the Middle East, Muslims, and Islam as one entity. Americans and the world regarded the Middle East as Islam and Islam as the Middle East. Thus, this correlation between the two made Muslims say Muslim Americans and Muslims in America as less western and more of another, but they were also seen as untrustworthy individuals. Additionally, prior to the September 11th, attacks and an after effect of September 11, was that Muslim men were violent and Muslim women as oppressed individuals. Thus, the perception of Islamophobia and the threat it brings to western society has impacted the discussion of Islamophobia in America.
During the medieval era, series of crusading brought significant impact for Western Europe. Increased cultural and intellectual contact with the Islamic world influenced on learning, literature, art, and other areas in society. Muslim accomplishment in science especially in medicine, mathematics, and astronomy were equally remarkable. More than that Muslim people studied wide variety range of science topics including astrology, geography, physics, chemistry, optics and other. This essay will be discussing about how science developed in medieval Islam, two main science topics they focused on most which are including mathematics and medicine and how science in Muslim emerge to Western Europe.
Islamic rule spread over major areas of Africa, the Middle East, South, Southeast and Central Asia, Spain, and Southern Italy. Many Christians saw Islam as a religion of the sword. They have been very violent throughout their history. Arabian armies engaged in attacking the remnants of the Byzantine Empire. The First Crusade was launched in order to stop the Arabian invaders.