Consequently, the concept organizational commitment is described as a tri-dimensional concept, characterized by the affective, continuance and normative dimensions (Meyer & Allen, 1991). Common to the three dimensions of organizational commitment is the view that organizational commitment is a psychological state that characterizes organizational members' relationship with the organization and has implications for the decision to continue or discontinue membership in the organization (Meyer & Allen,
There are three separate dimensions to organizational commitment: 1. Affective commitment is an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values. For example, a Petco employee may be affectively committed to the company because of its involvement with animals. 2. Continuance commitment is the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization. An employee may be committed to an employer because she is paid well and feels it would hurt her family to quit. 3. Normative commitment is an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons. An employee spearheading a new initiative may remain with an employer because he feels he would “leave the employer in the lurch” if he left." (Robbins & Judge, 2011, p 77)
Intrinsic factors, such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth seem to be related to job satisfaction. When respondents questioned felt good about their work, they tended to attribute those factors to themselves. On the other hand, when they were dissatisfied, they tended to cite extrinsic factors such as company policy, administration and supervision. Herzberg deduced from these experiments that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, as was believed. He found that removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He thus proposed a dual continuum, where the opposite of satisfaction would be no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction would be no dissatisfaction (Robbins,1993) According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, organizations cannot begin to motivate employees until that which dissatisfies them has been removed. Hygiene Factors such as salary, working conditions and supervision are not motivators even when they are being met. Other types of hygiene factors include, company policy, poor interpersonal relations and job security. The meeting of lower-level needs of employees is not motivating, but can have a de motivating impact if not met. True motivation only kicks in when an employee’s higher-level needs are met (La Motta,
Organizational commitment is critical to organizations due to the desire to retain a strong workforce. Organizations want to know why employees stay or leave their organizations so if correction is needed they have some tools to proceed with the correction. High turnover of employees in an organization can determine if an organization is successful or not. While turnover is related to all three areas of commitment researchers have determined that Affective commitment is one most associated with absenteeism and organizational citizenship (Williams J. 2004).
The literature review, explain the theories which are related to the case study’s problems in order to the motivation and satisfy employees’ needs. There are three important theories include; organizational motivation justice, Maslow’s hierarchy needs theory, and expectancy theory.
Many may argue that job satisfaction and organizational commitment are the same, but they are actually different.
Smith et al.(1969) treated job satisfaction both as a general attitude and as satisfaction with five specific dimensions: pay, work, promotion, supervision, and co-workers. According to Pareek (1989), stated organizational climate is cre¬ated by the perception of organizational members about the out¬come of interactions among five components of the organization. These interaction components are Structure, System, Culture, Leader behaviour, and employees’ psychological needs. Allen & Meyer, (1990) O’Reiily & Chatman, (1986) stated The Organizational commitment refers to the psychological attachment of workers to their workplaces Commitment to organizations is positively related to such desirable outcomes as job satisfaction (Bateman& Stasser, 1984; Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982), motivation (Mowday, Steers,& Porter,1979), and attendance (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Steers & Rhodes, 1978) and negatively related to such outcomes as absenteeism and turnover (Clegg, 1983; Cotton & Tuttle,1986). Also, Horton stated that stronger commitment could result in less turnover and absenteeism, thus increasing an organization’s productivity (Schuler & Jackson, 1996, p.302). However, the relationship between organizational commitment and
In this day and time there is a unique interest by organizations to offer greater job satisfaction.
According to Yücel (2012), job satisfaction is one of the factors that might increase the Organizational Commitment, where the job satisfaction is about the positive emotions that the employees had towards his\her work which decrease the employees’ intention to leave the organization. In the same way, Oh and Park (2013) identified that Trust in manger or leader will increase the Organizational Commitment especially in the public organization. As well as, Oh and Park (2013) argued that although job satisfaction is a reason of the Organizational Commitment , but it can be considered as a short- term motivation , while Trust in leaders and in the organization’s image and values would increase the motivation on the long-term.
According to (Vandenberg and Lance 1992:5), commitment leads to job satisfaction, which is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her work. This can also affect performance. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a person’s ability to complete a required task, the level of communication in the organization, and the way management treats the employees. When employees have affective commitment towards organization, they tend to have an increased level of job satisfaction.
Two prominent theories – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and Herzberg’s dual-factor motivational theory have been widely cited in the management literature. Though very straightforward and simple Maslow’s theory reveals a fundamental structure of human motivation. Many researchers have developed motivational theories, which provide guiding frameworks to understand the retention issues of employees such as Maslow, 1943. From lower to higher levels, employees seek to satisfy five levels of needs from their jobs. They are the physiological, safety and social needs at the bottom, and the needs for self-esteem and self-actualization at the top (Maslow, 1943).
In today 's corporate world, where reliability to organizations is fading fast, engagement has been growing by companies to maintain employees. Employee engagement is “a level of commitment and involvement of employees towards their organization and its value,” (Maslach, 2008). An engaged employee works with his/her colleagues to progress their productivity within their job, for the ultimate benefit of the organization. Effective managers have the talent to get things done by other employees. This is done by motivating employees to accomplish tasks. A manager must be able to represent these tasks to employees. Motivated employees will work with the manager to accomplish company objectives. Those employees who are displeased will work against company objectives. In this study it examines to see what enhances employee engagement or what can create the employee to be disengaged. Employee engagement drives employees ' motivation, job satisfaction, and loyalty to their companies. A manager’s capability to build solid relationships with employees generates engaging employees which then they can accomplish at the highest level and be a successful employee, (Judge, 2001). Employee motivation is seen as an important building block in the growth of effective businesses. A motivated employee symbolizes both a modest advantage and as a strategic asset in the corporate world, which is why the issue of building self-motivation in employees has sparkled interest in managers. Not
This figure reveals the effect of different employee’s commitment with the level of success of company’s success. It shows that the level of the organizations success and achievement enhances as the employees commitment towards that work increases.
Commitment of employees to an organization cannot be overstated. Raju and Srivastava (1994) see it as the key factor in an employee-organization relationship. Both Saal and Knight (1987) and Williams and Anderson (1991) agree that an employee who is committed to an organization will exceed expectations of the job requirements, dedicate more of their time to
Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with their supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.