The Kernel Enforces Security Between Applications And The System

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The kernel enforces security between applications and the system at the process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and group IDs that are assigned to applications. By default, applications cannot interact with each other and applications have limited access to the Operating System. If application A tries to do something malicious like read application B 's data or dial the phone without permission (a separate application), then the Operating System protects against this, because application A does not have the appropriate user privileges. All these features together are called the sandbox that jails the actions done by applications: the sandbox is simple, auditable, and based on decades-old UNIX-style user separation of…show more content…
When the user continues with the installation the system assumes that all the permissions where granted. The system accepts all the permissions listed in the AndroidManifest.xml, and is not possible to select which permissions to allow and which not. [4] [8]
In the next section are described the mayor security threats found in Android.
Android, as other smartphone Operating System, considers the security as integral part in its design. [4] However it has presented vulnerabilities that had been found and demonstrated by researchers and others that have been exploited by attackers. [2][8][9]. The same threats found in the modern SO can be applied to Android.
For each security level in Android’s architecture exists the possibility of any of the following types of attacks [9]:
• user 's information subtract
• information eavesdropping
• Unavailability of device 's services and resources
• spyware and malware execution
Android threats can be classified in three mayor groups
[10] based on where the threat is located: in an application, website, or network.
Application Communication
Processes can communicate using any of the traditional UNIX-type mechanisms, where, the Linux permissions still apply. Android also provides Inter Process Communication (IPC) mechanisms: [4]
• Binder: A lightweight capability-based remote procedure call mechanism designed for high performance for
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