The Keystone Pipeline Is A Oil Pipeline

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The United States’ constant desire for being independent of foreign oil is a long-going issue. The government is constantly trying to find any solution and investing in technologies to cover its consumption. Being dependent on Middle Eastern countries is a costly as well as risky with the on-going Arab Spring uprising. One of the proposed solutions was the Keystone Pipeline. The Keystone Pipeline is a crude oil pipeline that runs from Alberta in Western Canada to Illinois, Texas and Oklahoma. The project has four operation phases. Phase 1 is a pipeline that is about 2140 miles long and it connects oil reserves in Hardisty, Alberta and the junction in Steele City, Nebraska. Then it delivers oil from Steele City to the Wood River Refinery in Roxana, Illinois. This phase was completed and went online in June 2010. Phase 2 is called the Keystone-Cushing extension and it is 300 miles long. It connects Steele City to a tank farm in Cushing, Oklahoma. This phase was completed in February 2011. Phase 3, the Gulf Coast Extension, is about 480 miles long and connects Cushing to refineries at Port Arthur, Texas. This project was finished January 2014. Another pipeline added to this phase is in progress and will (United States Department of State, 2014)be done in 2015. It joins refineries in Port Arthur to refineries in Houston, Texas. Phase 4 commonly known as the Keystone XL. The pipeline’s route would connect the same points as in phase 1 but it is shorter in
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