In children and adolescents, there are usually two types of age-related problems that can occur. Firstly, there are difficulties inherent in the reliable assessment of psychopathology in this age group, and secondly, there are those related to the strict application of existing diagnostic criteria.
It’s estimated that the onset of 50% of chronic mental illnesses occurs by the age of fourteen, and about 75% by the age of 24 (NAMI, 2015). The most common mental health diagnoses in the United States are mood disorders, which include the spectrums of anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Unfortunately, 60% of adults and 50% of youth did not receive medical services for their mental health conditions in the previous fiscal year (NAMI, 2015).
DAS is recommended for this group as it is reliable and gives correct prediction and outcomes regarding depression. This assessment tool is easy to use; it is a self-report scale consisting of 40 items with each item having a statement and 7-point Likert scale. The questions used in this assessment are direct and easy making it efficient for most individuals' use (de Graaf, Roelofs, & Huibers, 2009). Besides,
A work-up must include a thorough interview of patient with assessment of positive and negative symptoms. There are many rare medical causes that present as psychosis in children (Benjamin et al., 2013). Genetic syndromes, IEM, and autoimmune, neurological, endocrinological and nutritional disorders that can present with psychotic symptoms must also be considered (Giannitelli, 2017). Assessment must include thorough physical examination, lab studies including complete blood count, serum electrolytes and glucose, hepatic and renal function, thyroid stimulating hormone, syphilis test, prolactin levels, hepatitis C, vitamin B12 and folate, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and antinuclear antibodies are recommended. Urinalysis, urine and serum toxicology, and human immunodeficiency virus testing should be done if there are risk factors present (). (Find sep. citation)
The National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI, 2015) estimates 1 in 5- 48.8- million adults in the United States are diagnosed with a mental illness each year. Amongst adolescents and children, it is estimated 1 in 5 youth ages 13-18-(21.4%) have, or will have a serious mental illness every year (NAMI, 2015). For children ages 8-15 the prevalence of experiencing a serious mental illness at one point in their life is 13% (NAMI, 2015). Although, children and adolescents are most commonly diagnosed with mood, conduct and anxiety disorders, there are those who occasionally experience psychotic disorders such as early onset schizophrenia.
To understand of fundamentals of this assessment, it is important to understand the disorder itself and its effects on individuals, particularly children and
For this assignment , I viewed the timelines of the following students Monsenya Chatman, Miranda Stanton, Alexis Jackson and my own timeline. The similarities between the time lines are: they were colorful, individuals and events that had the biggest impact on early childhood programs were included and pictures of the individuals or events were included, all timelines included information about the individuals John Cornelius and Friedrich Froebel. The differences between the timelines are: Monsenya included John Dewey, Miranda included Montessori, Alexis included information on the founding of NAEYC and Child Care Development Grant and I included information about Jean Jacques Rousseau and Johann Pestalozzi. John Cornelius, Friedrich Froebel,
Ehrenreich-May (2013), used CBT treatment, waitlist, or delayed treatment in a 1-week camp-like setting to treat SAD in 29 female children aged 7-12 years. The study found that children in the immediate CBT treatment group experienced significantly less separation anxiety and functional impairment when compared to those children who were assigned to the waitlist group (Santucci & Ehrenreich-May, 2013). Similarly, Schneider and colleagues (2011) found that children who participated in a 16-session CBT treatment program had significantly more positive outcomes than those assigned to a wait-list (76.19% of treatment group children no longer fit the DSM-IV criteria for SAD compared to 13.64% of wait-list group) (Schneider, Blatter-Meunier, Herren, Adornetto & In-Albon, Lavallee, 2011). When compared to the use of selective serotonin-reuptuke inhibitors (SSRI’s), CBT has been shown to be equally effective, with fewer negative side-effects (Walkup et al., 2008). A combination of treatment with SSRI’s and CBT has been shown to be more effective than individual CBT and SSRI use (Walkup et al., 2008).
Another weakness and debate about the DSM is that it is an unscientific system and it is the opinion of a few powerful psychiatrists. This has raised a lot of questions and have caused people to question the validity and reliability of the diagnostic categories as well. The validity and reliability were especially questioned after the Rosenhan experiment in the 1970s in which it was concluded that the sane could not be distinguished from the insane in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, even though the reliability and validity has improved now when compared to the 1970s, it is still a weakness which I believe could not be entirely fixed. However, validity problems of the diagnostic criteria especially arise when children or adolescents are involved. For
There have been other assessment tools developed to help with screening and diagnosing pediatric mania, but they are not made to help diagnose pediatric BPD. One of the tools is the
The goal from last week was reached, all the steps and attending to the nutritionist presentation were completed and the information from the nutritionist was great. One of my biggest challenges is the crazy schedules that my wife and I have, it is always something that we have to do after we get home from work, the kids always have after school activities and takes a lot of time and resources to make it to all their activities. This week goal is to create a family calendar using an app where we all can view each other schedule and we can enter appointments, after school activities remotely and from different devices. I think this will help with the crazy schedules.
It’s 3:30 pm; school’s out for the day, and the day care program begins watching children until their parents come to pick them up. All the elementary kids are free to roam on the outside jungle gyms to their hearts desire. On the playground, three young children are playing a game of tag. Each child, Timothy, Margret, and Rex, are squealing with laughter, having the time of their lives until it’s time for their parents to drive them home from school. The part time teacher 's assistant, at the age of 57, loves these children eternally but feels at a certain distance with Rex. He’s a good kid: quiet, obedient, bit of a class clown, but the assistant can’t help but pity the child. The three children see their respective minivans with their father’s at the wheel, and whine at the thought of leaving. The children bid their goodbyes to their friends, and run down the steps to check out with the teachers assistant. Timothy runs to his mother 's open arms, and gives her the biggest bear hug he could muster. Margaret runs as well, and clings to her mother’s left leg. As Rex runs to open arms of his two fathers, the teachers assistant shakes her head in disapproval. Of course, she supports the equality of marriage amongst all people, but she cannot understand the concept of two gays fathering a child. In her predictions, Rex will never understand what it’s like to have a maternal figure thus hindering his ability to live a fulfilling and happy life.
There are a wide range of mental disorders, this condition affects an individual’s mood, and how they think and their behavior. Often a mental disorder is discovered during infancy, childhood, or adolescence and symptoms may continue to get worse, but also can go away as the child ages. It is best to obtain an early diagnosis for early treatment options. Treatment can help the patient defeat the disorder or help improve the patient’s well-being. There are various diagnostic test utilized to help diagnose mental health problems. If sign of a mental disorder start to take place the physician may order a physiological assessment that may include a laboratory test, brain scan, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Notwithstanding that, other appraisal tool can be utilized to assess the care of K and it recuperation handle. For instance, the Beck depression inventory (BDI,) (Beck et al, 1961) is as often as possible utilized for measuring depression however as indicated by NICE Guidance (2005) it is not proper for young people as the reading level and reaction configuration may not be appropriate for them. NICE prescribe The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) (Angold et al, 1995) which has great demonstrative and predictive validity for young people. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) planned by Reynolds (1987), has been recorded reliability and validity. These evaluations must be repeated at consistent interims of one to four weeks for the data to be precise, (NICE, 2005).
The inclusion of ages and genders is essential when properly assessing childhood psychopathology, and in addition including the perspective of various sources is also crucial. The DSM does not account for the various perspectives of a child’s behavior and therefore a complete picture of the behaviors has not been attained. Parents, teachers and the child themselves will all have varying accounts of the behavior in question. Every perspective must be weighed to determine the true extent of a child’s psychopathology. Various individuals will have differing opinions on the nature and extent of a child’s behaviors causing the inclusion of all perspectives when assessing a child to be vital (Hudziak, Althoff, & Pine, 2007).