The Knee Joint And The Rehabilitation Process

1577 WordsApr 25, 20177 Pages
Biomechanics is a field that looks into the structure and function of biological systems such as humans; it can be used in numerous fields. It ranges from aiding in sports performance to helping people with daily tasks such as walking. Majority of sport related occur in the lower extremities. Lower extremities include the hip, knee and ankle joints and the femur, tibia, fibula, and multiple foot bones. This paper will focus on the role of the ACL, how it is injured, and the rehabilitation process. While each component of the lower extremity has its own role, the knee is the most complex. The knee joint performs various functions and carries most of the weight of the upper body. There are four ligaments in the knee joint: the anterior…show more content…
It can be completely torn (ruptured), separated from the tibia or femur (avulsion), or the ligament and part of the bone may be separated from the rest of the bone (avulsion fracture) 3. There are many actions that can lead to an ACL tear; shear strain can occur when one is hit on the side of the knee, simultaneous hyperextension and pivoting of the knee joint, a rapid deceleration or rapid cessation of movement, and/or a rapid change in direction—especially when running, or landing—are all leading causes2. Symptoms of an ACL tear are severe pain, a loud “popping” sound, swelling, inability to bear weight, instability of knee joint, and/or loss of full range of motion at the knee joint 2,3,7. There are certain populations that are at a high risk, athletes and women. Women are 4 to 10 times more likely than men to tear their ACL7. In terms of biomechanics of the lower extremities there are various theories as to why this may be. Researchers from the University of Colorado Hospital believe that it can be attributed to an imbalance in the strength ratio between the quadriceps and hamstrings; women tend to use their quadriceps to slow down and this causes instability10. Since women have a wider pelvis, it creates an increased angle and an increased stress on the ACL. Also women have a narrower femoral notch that decreases room where the ACL is located and can pinch and possibly rupture it12. Last, researchers believe that
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