The Lewis Model By Richard Lewis

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Another relevant cultural model which may offer insight to businesses interested in expanding operations in different countries is the “Lewis Model” (Figure 6). Richard Lewis is a linguist cultural consultant who is best known as the founder of the “Berlitz School of Languages” (“Richard D. Lewis”, n.d.). Notably, Mr. Lewis has a unique understanding of Japanese Culture having spent several years living in Japan, where he was the personal tutor to Empress Michiko and five other members of the Japanese Imperial family (“Richard Lewis”, 2015). “Cultural behavior is the end product of collected wisdom, filtered and passed down through hundreds of generations as shared core beliefs, value assumptions, notions and persistent action patterns. In other words, culture is a collective programming of the mind, that distinguishes the members of one human group from another (Lewis, 2006).” However, there is an inherent danger of stereotyping associated with each of these cultural models. As Lewis wrote, "Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception.” "There is, however, such a thing as a national norm (Lewis)." The “Lewis Model” suggests the culture, national norm, of every country falls into one of three distinct categories: Linear Active, Multi-active or Reactive. In this model, the Japanese culture is categorized as reactive, which suggests they are a listening culture. Reactive cultures are those who
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