The Main Characteristics Of Psychological Understanding

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One of the main characteristics of psychological understanding is the approach to the theory of behaviourism. Behaviourism focuses on the action committed by an individual in response to certain situations rather than the thinking done by the individual, in simpler form, ‘the reaction’. Conditioning is a theory introduced by behaviourist, this concept discusses how stimuli’s can generate predictable responses that can be in sequence and repetitive, this contributes to the understanding of how organism behaviour can be taught and developed due to certain conditions or situations faced. Pavlov was a physiologist that contributed to the first understanding of conditioning, he ran a study on animals, specifically dogs, in which he put forth a…show more content…
Another concept put forth by Pavlov which is more related to the explanation of human behaviour, was his insight on speech which he regarded as also a stimuli that generates response, but rather than a fixated response there are many a human can choose from in response to certain conditions, speech is able to create that flexibility. He stated that ‘Speech, on account of the whole preceding life of the adult, is connected up with all the internal and external stimuli which can reach the cortex, signalling all of them and replacing all of them, and therefore it can call forth all those reactions of the organism which are normally determined by the actual stimuli themselves’ (Pavlov 1960:407) This understanding may contradict the concept that behaviour is predictable to the stimuli provided, because as humans we are more flexible to choose how we respond. But Pavlov still associated this with conditioning, ‘High-order conditioning occurs when a second conditioning stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus that has already been established’ (Pavlov 1960:33) The higher order conditioning procedure leads to two levels of signals. The first signal being the primary signalling system, which
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