Syphilis is spread through contact with a syphilis sore (Syphilis). It has a wide range of side effects, and if left untreated can turn into a serious problem. There are several tests for syphilis, including blood, tissue, and fluid (from syphilis sores) tests. The rapid plasma regain test (RPR test), for example, tests blood or spinal fluid for syphilis antibodies (or T Pallidum antibodies), but because these antibodies are nonspecific to syphilis, this can result in a false positive. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is the second test used to confirm syphilis in someone who tested positive in the RPR test. It also tests for syphilis antibodies. Its treatment has evolved a lot. In the 1940s, it was treated primarily by penicillin, which is most likely what Henrietta Lacks would have used to be treated for this disease if she got proper treatment (Progress). Now, a variety of antibiotics are used to treat syphilis, including penicillin. The dosage is small in the early stages but increased later. Harm done in the third stage cannot be reversed though
Jamison attends a medical conference and a presentation is made about the discovery of watery deposits in the brain tissue of manic-depressives, which interests her. Jamison begins to ponder her previous qualms about discussing her illness. She focus’ on the issues concerning her own embarrassment, cruelty from her colleagues and friends, and protecting her own family members. Jamison is grateful for a more balanced life. She is aware of the danger that the slightest mania may turn into wild insanity that can lead to death.
In Macon County, Alabama, about 40% of African Americans had syphilis. Syphilis caused by a spirochete bacterium that is contracted sexually. In the 1930’s it had relatively no cures or treatments. Syphilis progresses into three stages, the last of which begins to attack the several organ systems of the individual. The victim may become paralyzed, blind and/or deaf; develop heart problems or a mental illness, or other symptoms (Gray 37-38). They decided that they wanted to compare and contrast how blacks and whites develop the disease and the effects on each race. Years before the study of the Negro was set to begin, a similar study for whites was conducted in Oslo, Norway. This study was a retrospective look into the effects of untreated syphilis in whites. The retrospective study used case histories of those who had syphilis when they died not living patients. The U.S. Public Health Service decided to use African Americans in Macon County in the experiment. Originally titled “The Effects of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male” the experimentations took place at the Tuskegee Institute which is why the study is generally named the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (Jones 93-94). The Rosenwald Fund, a foundation that funded many programs that were used in the betterment of African-Americans began funding this project. After the Stock Market crash of 1929, and the start of the Great Depression, the Rosenwald Fund has to withdraw all the funds that they
Syphilis is a harsh sexually transmitted disease. It can be contracted through intercourse and orally with any age or gender. The infection is a spiral shaped bacteria that grows on the mucus of the genitals or mouth. Syphilis has three stages, the first stage is the presence of painless ulcers, also know as chancre. The open sore can develop anytime within ten to ninety days after you have contracted it, which at this time is very contagious. The next stage is where the symptoms really start to show,
The men were never given adequate treatment for their disease. Even when penicillin became the drug of choice for syphilis in 1947
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is characterized by sores known as chancres. These sores are typically found on the external genitals. There are three stages to the disease: Primary, Secondary and Latent/Late. Syphilis can also spread to the neurological systems as well as the ocular system. In the primary stage one or more of the chancres may appear where the infection has entered the body. The sores aren’t painful and may last three to six weeks (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). The
In addition, another important quality that the doctors have is the ability to collaborate. Dr. House deduces that the excessive bravery, along with the recurrent hallucinations may be an indication of a problem in the amygdala. With the help of Dr. House, the diagnostician, Dr. Foreman, the neurosurgeon, and Dr. Wilson, the
Dr. Oliver Sacks wrote ‘The Man Who Mistook His Wife for A Hat’ in 1985, it contains the bizarre, unique and extraordinary cases Sacks encountered as a neurologist. This book report is going to evaluate and include Dr. Sacks conclusions on the case studies recorded in ‘Part One: Losses’. ‘Losses’ covers 9 neurological disorders which are characterised by a ‘loss’ of some kind.
Encephalitis is a neurological disorder that results in the inflammation of the brain and sometimes the meninges. It is usually due to a viral infection. Most often arboviruses cause encephalitis, by transference via mosquitos to humans and animals. When bitten by an infected mosquito the virus moves from the mosquito into the person’s blood, it then reaches the brain and spinal cord, it multiplies within the central nervous system thus inflaming and damaging nerve cells, this interferes with signals from the brain to the rest of the body. The herpes simplex virus type one can commonly cause encephalitis. HIV has also been noted as an increasing cause of encephalitis. Viral infections like: mumps, chicken pox and measles can also cause encephalitis, but rarely.
To begin, Kolbert appeals to experts of neurology and psychology to reinforce the main idea of her essay. Utilizing specialists' theories create a sense of authenticity, and in turn, assures the reader what they are reading is reliable. She calls upon Frances Jensen, a neurologist,
The researchers would do a procedure where they dangerously tap the spinal cord to get fluids. This resulted in paralysis of limbs, extreme neuronal damages, and some died from syphilitic lesions. By thinking they were getting cured with this procedure, the researchers would give out a second spinal tap treatment for free. Also, if the wives were infected, then many of the offspring of the participants were born with congenital syphilis. With the “Tuskegee Study” going on for forty-years, from 1932 through 1972, they were denied treatment. Even after penicillin had become the standard cure for syphilis in the mid-1940s. Due to the longer extinction of the study more people were suffering with becoming blind and insane from advanced syphilis. So the doctors withheld treatment at some point, leaving it to an autopsy to remain committed by observing their subjects. To agree with the final procedure, the government offered burial insurance, at most fifty dollars, to recover the cost of a casket and
Oliver Sacks is a very famous doctor of neurology as well as a writer. He spent most of his adult life treating patients. Oliver Sacks mostly concentrated on disorders of the brain and nervous system. In a lot of the cases that Sacks dealt with, there was nothing he was able to do to heal the patients. His goal was to find a way to live with and accept their condition as well as possible. Sacks enjoyed dealing with cases mostly about experiences of real people struggling to live with unusual conditions. That’s where he wanted to find ways to help these patients to the best of his and medical ability out there. Throughout his cases he studied he came across patients who had different
As a child, I watched Alfred Hitchcock Theater, The Twilight Zone and other science fiction or horror shows. Often times the storyline was based on a victim's mental problems or their skewed perception of the world. Looking back, I remember the fascination I felt when watching one specific episode of the Twillight Zone. In this particular episode, a man turned into a zombie by some type of poison. Essentially he was still alive, but he was dead to the world. In the end he was embalmed while he was completely conscious yet could not say anything to prevent it. Like this incident, every episode captivated me but when it was over I could sleep easy because there was no possibility of
Encephalitis is a condition caused by viruses which cause the brain to become inflamed. There are two types of encephalitis one is called primary because the viruses affect the brain itself. Secondary is the viruses travel from some other part of the body that has been affect to the brain. When the virus reaches the brain it begins to multiply causing inflammation. The brain’s white matter can be destroyed. This destruction causes cell death, hemorrhage and edema. The edema begins to compress the blood vessels this causes intracranial pressure (Mayo Clinic, 2011).