The Melting Point And Boiling Point Of Halogenoalkanes

1721 WordsMar 27, 20177 Pages
nvestigating the Melting Point and Boiling Point of Halogenoalkanes in Relation to their Carbon Chain Length. Introduction The halogens are elements which are located on the periodic table in group 7 and consist of these five toxic, non-metallic elements: fluorine (F2), chlorine (Cl2), bromine (Br2), iodine (I2), and astatine (At). Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. The halogen elements have seven valence electrons, and so they have a desire for one additional electron to form a full octet and become stabilized. Therefore, the halogens are more reactive than any other metals found in the periodic table. Halogenoalkanes which are also…show more content…
When a liquid is heated, it eventually reaches a temperature at which the vapor pressure is large enough that bubbles form inside the body of the liquid. This temperature is called the boiling point. Once the liquid starts to boil, the temperature remains constant until all of the liquid has been converted to a gas. When looking at the halogens as elements down period 7, it is clear that the melting and boiling points increase down the group because of the Van der Waal forces. It is also clear that the size of the molecules increases down the group as well. This increase in size means an increase in the strength of the Van der Waals forces, which will subsequently increase the boiling and melting points Van der Waals forces ' is a general term used to define the attraction of intermolecular forces between molecules. There are two kinds of Van der Waals forces: weak London Dispersion Forces and stronger dipole-dipole forces. Research Question What effect does the number of carbons bonded to the carbon carrying the halogen (Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine) group have on boiling points and melting points of different halogenoalkanes in different halogenoalkanes structures (primary, secondary, and tertiary) Aim: The purpose or aim of this investigation is to explore and compare the melting points and boiling points of primary, secondary, and

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