The Microstructure of a Typical Animal Cell Essay

1804 WordsNov 1, 20128 Pages
Unit 13, task 1. P1 – Describe the microstructure of a typical animal cell and the functions of the main cell components. A typical animal cell is seen as a tiny, three dimensional sac which is in fact made up of many components, each as important as the other. The microstructure of an animal cell was in fact uncovered mainly through the use of both cell fractionation and electron microscopy. Each main component has its own, individual function which helps a cell to function and maintains the cell membrane. The components that I will be describing include the cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi bodies, centrioles, endoplasmic reticulum (both smooth and rough) and ribosomes. The cell membrane - The cell…show more content…
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth ER) – The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is very similar in terms of structure and chemically to the rough endoplasmic reticulum with the exception of not being able to attach ribosomes like the rough ER can. The smooth ER has more than just one main function and in simple terms these are control of calcium release within the muscle cells, breakdown of lipid soluble toxins in the liver and lipid steroid hormone synthesis. It primarily makes and process fat within a typical animal cell. The structure of the smooth ER is usually said to be tubular rather than sheet like and it may be separate from the rough ER or in some cases may in fact be an extension of it. The smooth ER is said to be most common in cells that metabolise fat and it is a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane of a cell. It is made up of a vast network of membrane which is usually covered in tubules and vesicles. Depending on the type of cells, the amount of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum that is present within it varies somewhat greatly. Endoplasmic means inside of the cytoplasm and the term reticulum means network. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) – The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered in ribosomes which are

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