The samples were observed and tested after waiting 24 hours from when the exposure was stopped. The results showed that Cell-cycle control and DNA repair was damaged due to the radiation. It was also observed that early stages of cancer had formed in the tissue, and there is a high percentage that there could be cardiovascular dysfunction if the tissue was inside of a human. When to the samples exposed to X-rays, the Radon-exposed samples showed more irregularities. Table 1. Illustrates the viability (“ability of a thing (a living organism, an artificial system, an idea, etc.) to maintain itself or recover its potentialities.” (Google Search,
Marie and Pierre Curie both researched into radium’s properties and the results implied that radium could possibly be a cure to some diseases. From this, a new form of therapy developed: radium therapy or “Curie Therapy,” as it was referred to in France (Koestler-Grack “Cures Cancer”). The healing properties of radium are serviceable to the curing of diseases. Many suffered from incurable diseases, such as types of Leukemia and Carcinoma, but radium treatment gave them hope for a cure. Now, many diseases that were burdensome to treat in the past are of little to no consequence due to the innovation of treatment from radium
Until the early 1900's, scientists used several methods of measurement in their efforts to determine the age of the Earth. They studied sedimentation and erosion, stratification (with fossil evidence), measured the salinity of the oceans, and used thermodynamics to determine loss of heat since the Earth's beginning. Each of these approaches yielded estimates that the Earth was anywhere from 24 to 100 million years old.
Radium appears as a shiny, silvery metal of high radioactivity. Radium can be “used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to the bones,” and in the past, it was “used in luminous paints, for example in clock and watch dials” (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017). Radium is present in the environment, and people that live in areas where coal or other fuels are burning and released into the air are more exposed to higher levels of radium. Radium can enter the body by breathing or swallowing and can remain in the body for months, only exiting in small amounts by urine and feces (“Public Health Statement for Radium,” 1990). High levels of radium exposure over a long period of time are extremely dangerous to the health of an individual. The harmful effects of radium could cause “anemia, cataracts, fractured teeth, cancer (especially bone cancer), and death” (“Public Health Statement for Radium,” 1990). The greater amount of radium exposure an individual receives, the greater their chance is to developing one of these diseases (“Public Health Statement for Radium,”
The city of Waukesha was “pleased to report” that their water tested negative for everything but Radium and Gross Alpha. Radium is element number 88 on the periodic table and from the name, you can guess that this element is highly radioactive and can be very harmful to the human body. For starters, if radium is ingested and absorbed into the cells and tissues, it can and will start to deteriorate the surrounding tissues. Specifically, radium may cause problems in the immune system including anemia. Radium can cause cataracts and fractured teeth (from breaking down tissue, including bone tissue). High levels of radium have also been known to cause an increased risk in bone, liver, and breast cancers. Gross Alpha is a type of radiation that is released when any naturally occurring radioactive element changes to produce a “decay product”, such as radium. These decay products are formed after billions of years. Alpha radiation is everywhere, in our soil, air, and in our water. This is because or earth’s bedrock consists of varying amounts of radioactive elements. The alpha radiation also varies in our water, due to the water in deep aquifers or wells touching the bedrock; the water may contain the same or less than the same amount of elemental decay. Alpha radiation in drinking / ground water can be in the form of dissolved minerals, or as a gas
In the early 1900’s, the discovery of a luminescent material, radium, arrived on the scene to the delight of a fascinated and eager public. At first, it seemed to be a miracle remedy, not just harmless but even beneficial. However, when a multitude of watch dial painters were exposed to this substance on an extremely consistent basis, the negative effects began bubbling to the surface. These “Radium Girls” were unknowingly consuming a potentially lethal substance and would be the first victims of radium poisoning and radioactivity. Not many people knew about the dangers of radioactive substances or radium poisoning and many others had made judgements that were clouded by the perfection of the glowing sensation. In spite of this, the horrific afflictions that the Radium Girls endured helped shift the public perspective of radium from “wonder drug” to “pitiless poison” and started the country on a path to regulating the handling of radioactive
Cancer is a genetic, heritable disease in which abnormal cells divide rapidly destroying normal body cells, often being fatal. Cancer can occur in any body tissue; skin, organs, and parts of the reproductive system (Duda). There are various activities linked to different types of cancer, such as smoking, too much sun exposure, gene mutations, carcinogens, and viruses. A major cause of cancer, dating all the way back to the 1950’s, is radiation. Atomic testing ordered by the U.S. Government has been suspected to be the cause of many deaths linked to radiation-related diseases (Williams 149).
From surgery to radium exposure to such extremes as radiation therapy, as doctors’ knowledge of the varying types of cancer, and the expansion of medical research regarding cancer has changed, so has the preferred method of treatment. Doctors and researchers dedicated to studying cancer have led to a greater understanding of cancer development; consequently the development of treatments and cures that are more effective, less harmful, have fewer side effects, and in some cases serve to prevent the spread of cancer.
Doctors had been using radiation to destroy cancerous cells since the unfolding of X-rays and radium in the 1890s, but both techniques had their own issues. X-ray machines were complicated to make use of, and radium implanted near tumors. In addition, X-rays weren’t strong enough to be entirely effective, and as for both of them, they were quite expensive.
The story of radium girls has to begin with the discovery of radium in 1898 by
Many of the deaths were from the initial blast or burns, but (as mentioned) many people died from radiation sickness. They suffered nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and weakness. People also had internal bleeding and bled from their mouths, throats and other places in their bodies.
Studies show that between 140 and 280 deaths had happened form radiation exposure alone. Survivors showed a greater-than-usual incidence of leukemia early on, and an ever-increasing rate of other types of cancers as the years wears on, much greater
A 5-20 dose of rem causes possible damage to chromosomes possibly causing your children to have deformities. At 20-100 rems you will have a reduction of white bloods cells for an amount of time dependent on the rems. At 100-200 rems you will most likely get mild Radiation sickness in about 2 hours of exposure. Also in radiation sickness you will vomit, have diarrhea, fatigue, and will be much more susceptible to infection and other stuff. Around 200-300 rems you will get serious radiation sickness and hemorrhage. At about 400-1000 rads you will have acute illness and a quite early death. And finally from 1000-5000 you will also have acute illness and be dead in a matter of a couple of days or so depending on the
It is not until recently that people have become dependent on this element, and not necessarily for the good of it, and the world. There is an obsession with uranium because of its unique properties. Uranium is extremely powerful because of its radioactive properties and unstable nuclei, especially that of Uranium-235. It is able to break down and release high frequency radiation through alpha and beta decay. It is because of these characteristics that Uranium has such a craze on the population of the world (Cox, 1995; Scerri, 2007). The properties of uranium allow people to create powerful plants to produce electricity, and weapons strong enough to destroy the world.
There are many advantages and disadvantages to the use of radioactive elements in medicines. Some advantages include the fact that