The Morality and Utility of Artificial Intelligence Essay

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The Morality and Utility of Artificial Intelligence

Douglas R. Hofstadter, in his work Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, remarks that one may contend that Artificial Intelligence is born of a machine’s ability to perform any task that had been previously confined to the domain of humans (601). However, a few sentences later, the author explains Tessler’s “Theorem” of progress in AI: “once some mental function is programmed, people soon cease to consider it as an essential ingredient of ‘real thinking.’ The ineluctable core of intelligence is always in that next thing which hasn’t yet been programmed” (601). There are various arguments as to what actually constitutes intelligence; however, it seems established that the
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Finally, Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus, in their book Mind Over Machine, contend that Artificial Intelligence as a science is impossible.

Robert Strohmeyer, in his article “Total Autonomy—The Next Generation of Thinking Machines,” states that, “AI’s long-standing appeal dwells in the romance of mingling the creative problem-solving methods of human thought with the presumably flawless logic of computer circuits” (50). The question remains: how creative—or like humans—must computers be? In 1950, Alan Turing proposed in his article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” that a computer shall be considered intelligent if it cannot be distinguished from a human (Hodges 37-38). In his paper, Turing argues, “the successful imitation of intelligence is intelligence” (38). Turing invented the Imitation Game, later to be called the Turing Test, as a measure of machine intelligence. He proposes a situation in which a human interrogator is placed in one room, while a human and a machine are placed in a different room, with teleprinter communication between the two rooms (41). The object of the game is for the interrogator to determine which of the two beings is the computer, and which of the two is the human (41). If the computer is able to fool the interrogator, that computer is considered by Turing to be intelligent
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