The Morphology Of Hmong

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Hmong is a Miao-Yiao language spoken primarily in Southern China, Thailand and Laos. According to, there are over 5.7 million people who speak the language all around the world. Over 95,000 Hmong people have settled in the United States. Hmong is monosyllabic and tonal language. This means that it consists primarily of one syllable words where the tone of a word affects the meaning. The Hmong dialect is branched from the Chuanqiandian dialect into two separate ones; known as ‘Njua’ green and ‘Daw’ white. Hmong is closely related to the Miao language spoken in Southern China. However, it is not too known because various people living in these areas gradually adopted phrases and words from other cultures, to produce a whole new way of speaking.
1. Hmong is an isolating language, where new words can be formed by compounding and reduplication. Nouns show its case function through word order in the subject/object position, where the adjectives and demonstratives follow the noun.
When it comes to nominative and accusative cases on nouns, they are not inflected for number, case or gender. Therefore, the same word could be used to translate the singular, dual and plural pronouns as shown in the table below. Examples 1 and 2 show the nominative and accusative cases on nouns in a sentence. 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular Kuv Koj Nws
Duo (two) Wb Neb Nkawv
Plural (more than two) Peb Nej Lawv (plural)

(1) Koj noj mov.
2SG eat
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