The Most Dominant And Influential Empires

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The Umayyads created the first true Muslim dynasty- passing down power strictly within family boundaries from generation to generation. During their reign lasting from 661 to 750 AD, they built the early Islamic community up into one of the most dominant and influential empires in the world. During this time, the Umayyads would create the basis of how the Islamic Empire would be operated moving forward. They would soon become a dynasty in question because of their lack of descent from Muhammad, their arguable passage of power from father to son, and their injustice and ill-treatment of non-Arab Muslims. Their desecrating rulers overall had a negative impact on Islam and ultimately led to their fall.
The Umayyad clan was openly one of
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Ali then succeeded Uthman as the next caliph. Muawiya wanted the assassins responsible for Uthman’s death to be handed over, but Ali was unable to comply with his demands. This conflict led to the first Muslim civil war or fitna. Ali defeated Aisha, a supporter of Muawiya who was also the Prophet Muhammad’s widow, and other prominent Muslims at the Battle of the Camel, but then later lost to Muawiya at the Battle of Siffin in Syria. The civil war ended with no winner, but shortly after Ali was assassinated by a kharijite in Kufa. Muawiya emerged as the leader after convincing Al-Hasan, Ali’s son, to give up his right to the caliphate- establishing himself as the first Umayyad caliph. He was driven to create a strong, effective, and somewhat centralized government. He moved the capital from Medina to Damascus and gave Christians, in many cases ex-Byzantine officials- government positions, which led to some new financial and administrative systems that were unwelcomed by many. Muawiya was the beginning of a long line of impious rulers who did not give in to what the people of the province wanted, had his own personal agenda, and really only gave in to the religion of Islam around the time they assumed a government position.
Muawiya broke the status quo by appointing his son Yazid his successor. This was a serious problem, which
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