Essay on The Natural Ways of Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau

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In today’s society, human nature is a commonly used term. On the other hand, there is not just one concept of human nature, but rather a plethora of concepts surrounding the idea. With the rise of capitalism, social structure is reformed; it is during this rise in the early seventeenth and eighteenth century, that John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau introduce their varying opinions surrounding man in nature. The western philosophers mainly concern themselves with the concept of the social contract. Rousseau, Hobbes, and Locke begin with the conception of the individual, because in the natural state, they all believe that man is an independent character. Each of the philosophers used their revolutionary concepts to …show more content…
However, he also portrays this setting as a war against all humanity, in which man is intended to fight. The setting lacks laws or authority, which leads to its inadequate protection, further emphasizing Hobbes’s idea of total independence. Anything goes in a society with no moral normalcies, because there is no standard of justice, good, or evil, yet Hobbes still makes mention of man feeling shame by nature. Without morals, Hobbes views the natural man as corrupt, “so that in nature of man, we find three principal causes of quarrel. First, competition; secondly, diffidence; thirdly, glory” (Hobbes 1615:5). The natural man according to Hobbes is insecure, instable, and lacks progress. These assumptions of man lead Hobbes to believe that humanity is in danger of extinction without rules or structure.
From this equality of ability ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends. And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in the way to their end (which is principally their own conservation, and sometimes their delectation only) endeavor to destroy or subdue one another. (Hobbes 1615:5).
Man’s desires, wants, and distastes create conflict and ultimately conclude in a state of war. This is why the state of nature, according to Hobbes, is in a state of perpetual warfare, which only an absolutist monarchy could control. Hobbes’s sovereigntist attitude shines through in
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