Chronic pain in older adults is defined as ‘‘an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage, for persons who are either aged (65 to 79 years old) or very aged (80 and over) and who have had pain for greater than 3 months’’ (Lynch, 2000, p.270). The consequences of chronic pain may also be related to impaired activities of daily living (ADLs), physical disability, accidents, gait abnormalities, polypharmacy, and cognitive decline in older adults (Mantyselka et al., 2001; Kaye et al., 2010; Shega et al., 2010). Therefore, chronic pain has negative affects on older adults, their families, and social relationships.
Medical Treatment Most medical treatment for chronic pain includes from pharmaceutical treatments for pain management, which can range from over-the-counter medicines like aspirin to prescription drugs. The problem with chronic pain management treatments that involve drugs is that they lose their effectiveness. Worse they actually can create more chronic or that can add to the chronic pain cycle.
The Biological Effects of Pain Killing Medication; Opioid Medications There are many various kinds of prescription of pain relievers, which include: opioids, corticosteroids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants (anti-seizure medications). Among them I would like to focus on opioid medications and its side effects. Opioid medications are narcotic pain medications that contain natural poppy plant, synthetic opiates such as; methadone, fentanyl, tapentadol and tramadol, as well as the semi- synthetic opioids such as; oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, hydromorphone and heroin. Opioid prescriptions are morphine (C17H19NO3), heroin (C21H23NO5), codeine (C18H21NO3) and thebaine (C19H21NO3). They are highly addictive substances are called opiates. Opioid medications have been used for hundreds and thousands of years to treat both pain and mental health problems. It is also use in a short-term pain after surgery. According to the survey in the past two decades, the prescription of opioid in the United States has been increased to the higher levels that is more than 600% (Paulozzi & Baldwin, 2012). However, that opioid medications are very dangerous to the patients’ respiratory system, other parts of the internal body and even can cause death. It should be only being use after wise discernment and with a great care.
According to The World Health Organisation (1999), defined pain as an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is traditionally described as acute or chronic pain. The prevalence of chronic pain (CP) is higher than of acute of pain, as it affects 7.8 million people of all ages in the UK (Chronic Pain Policy Coalition., 2006). The current leading cause of mortality that is accounting for 60% of all deaths is due to chronic diseases and is also a problem as causes an increasing burden on the health care service (World Health Organisation., 2007). CP can affect a person’s quality of life if managed poorly, statistics shows that 25% of people lose their job and 22% leads to depression. (Chronic Pain Policy Coalition.,
It is important for physicians to take into account the various outcomes that happen when prescribing pain medications. Aside from having the burdensome responsibility of relieving a patient’s pain, a physician could also be responsible for the possibility of negative outcomes like sickness and even death as a result of pain medications often prescribed. Because of the risks
Pain medications result in complicated side effects beyond addiction and tolerance which is Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH). “There’s an unfortunate irony for people who rely on morphine, oxycodone, and other opioid painkillers: The drug that’s supposed to offer you relief can actually make you more sensitive to pain over time” (“Why Taking Morphine Makes Pain Worse”, 2016). This effect of the drug is known as hyperalgesia but in the presence of opioids; this is known as Opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Opioid is a well know drug originated from the opium poppy plant and it has been around for thousands of years for both recreational and medicinal purposes. The most active purpose for this drug is to relieve pain which is also known as a painkiller. There is a law stating that all contents must be labeled on all medicines containing opioid; “Congresswoman Annie Kuster (NH-02) welcomed today’s announcement by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that it would begin requiring warnings for medications that contain opioids” (“FDA Policy to Require Labeling of Prescription Medications Containing Opioids”, 2016). This drug should not be taken without direct orders from a doctor nor should it be misused. Scientists have observed that the more an individual consumes, the less effective the drug becomes. This leads to a viscous cycle of people relying on higher doses. Opioid sets off a chain of signals in the spinal cord that heightens pain rather than reducing it, even after the
The main issue presented in this article is that current painkillers are highly addictive, and all have extremely risky side effects. This is leading an increasing amount of people each year to form a dependency for these drugs. Ultimately, resulting in more people dying every year from causes that include painkiller addiction also known as opioid addiction.
Chronic pain is often defined as pain lasting more than 12 weeks. It may arise from initial injury, such as a back sprain, or there may be an ongoing issue such as illness. The assignment given consisted of finding a person who suffers from chronic pain to explore the ideas of illness classification, the experience of pain and explanatory models. The interview process was executed on September 17, 2016 via face time lasting approximately 45 minutes in length. She gave me her oral consent for this interview. I explained that this information would be used for a chronic pain paper. (American Chronic Pain Association) The subject is a 53 year old, Caucasian, upper middle class female currently in treatment for melanoma cancer. Currently, no disease
Prescription painkiller addiction has become one of the fastest growing addictions in the country(drugaddictiontreatment.com). Since 1990, deaths in the US from unintentional drug overdoses have increased by over 500% (ideas.time.com). People have been using painkillers as drugs because they believe it is safer than using illegal street
What is Acupuncture? Acupuncture is an ancient art of healing that dates back to at least 2,500 years. It has been widely practiced in China and many other Asian countries. Only recently has acupuncture made its way into the western world. Acupuncture accentuates on the natural healing of the body. It
INTRODUCTION The current opiod addiction problem in the United States is America’s worst drug problem ever. The consequences have been steadily worsening reflected in recovery rates and overdose deaths. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), over half a million people died of drug overdoses between 2000 and 2015 (Center
Is the misuse of painkillers worth losing a life? A study was performed in West Virginia looking at 295 accidental deaths from pain killers and found nearly 2 out of 3 of those who died overdosed on pain-killers, did not have a prescription (Shmerling, 2008).
Pain The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” (1979). Pain is actually the culprit behind warranting a visit to a physician office for many people (Besson, 1999). Notoriously unpleasant, pain could also pose a threat as both a psychological and economic burden (Phillips, 2006). Sometimes pain does happen without any damage of tissue or any likely diseased state. The reasons for such pain are poorly understood and the term used to describe such type of pain is “psychogenic pain”. Also, the loss of productivity and daily activity due to pain is also significant. Pain engulfs a trillion dollars of GDP for lost work time and disability payments (Melnikova, 2010). Untreated pain not only impacts a person suffering from pain but also impacts their whole family. A person’s quality of life is negatively impacted by pain and it diminishes their ability to concentrate, work, exercise, socialize, perform daily routines, and sleep. All of these negative impacts ultimately lead to much more severe behavioral effects such as depression, aggression, mood alterations, isolation, and loss of self-esteem, which pose a great threat to human society.
Definition, Epidemiology, and Trends of Chronic Pain Chronic pain is defined as a pain that doesn’t go away for a long time. The pain can last for weeks, more than 3 months, years, and might make someone feel hopeless. Chronic pain does not relief with regular pain medication. It is important to address chronic pain because is physically and psychologically stressful. Its persistent discomfort can lead to irritation and frustration with the person’s self and with other people. Pain affects not only mental health but interfere also with someone’s sleep pattern.
It’s only natural to head straight for your medicine cabinet when you feel a headache coming on, but did you know that you’re actually putting yourself in danger by relying on painkillers every time you have a migraine or eye fatigue? Overconsumption of painkillers can - and almost always does