The Neolithic Settlement Of Catal Huyuk

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The Anatolian Neolithic settlement of Catal Huyuk, which means forked mound, dates between 7000 and 5000 B.C.E. was one of the world’s first towns and the oldest civilizations on earth. Located in the Konya Plain in central Turkey, Catal Huyuk was considered the wheat-growing region. The main mound covered 32 acres and stood 57 feet above the plain with a distance of 3,000 feet above sea level. The population was estimated at upwards of 5,000 people, which was based on the site and the cluster of houses. Mount Hasan, an inactive stratovolcano, located approximately 87 miles from Catal Huyuk was painted on walls in homes depicting the importance of the volcano. Obsidian was collected and used for trading in Catal Huyuk and considered the first organized city-state. Catal Huyuk was considered a religious and trade center. The economy was centered on agriculture, manufacture, and the trade of raw and finished products. Considered a farming community, plants such as wheat, barley and peas, as well as, a variety of other grains and cereal along with the practice of raising cattle. Maize, wheat and peanut was used to produce oils. During the Paleolithic and Neolithic era, obsidian, volcanic glass, was traded in Catal Huyuk and used for making knives, spearheads and tools. The volcanic material was also transformed into mirrors for women who applied red ocher to their faces. The occupation of metalworking became important during the Neolithic period the use copper and

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