The No Child Left Behind Act, High Stakes Testing

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While America’s educational community is emerged in discussing the No Child Left Behind Act, high stakes testing, and what these new versions of old ideas actually mean for the larger society, the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) 2005 report shows that African-American males continue to spiral further down the achievement ladder. They are not thriving or surviving in many school settings. They have been flagged by Statistics as the highest rank among students who choose to leave school; are suspended, expelled, or kicked out of school. Unfortunately, the same is also true when it comes to poor test scores, low GPAs and high rates of referral and placement in special education. In stark contrast, African-American males are underrepresented in gifted education (NCES, 2005; Whiting, 2004; as cited in (Whiting, 2006, p. 222). This dismal data hold most true for African-American males in middle and high schools although elementary school age African-American males are included. As African-American males tread through the educational pipeline, they appear to become less academically engaged (Ferguson, 2001; as cited in Whiting, p. 222). Th¬ey appear to have learned to underachieve (Ford, 1996; as cited in Whiting), to devalue academics and school (Ogbu, 2003, 2004), School for them is not a place to develop their sense of identity, particularly self-worth and self-efficacy (Whiting, 2004). In contrast, African-American

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