The Oil Transportation Methods Is The Keystone Pipeline

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Canada has become one of the leading producers of crude oil in the world. This is a direct result of improved extraction methods from the Alberta tar sands in the late 1980’s. It is said that the tar sands represent the largest reserve of oil in the world, covering over 140,000 square kilometers. The tar sands are vast areas of soil containing bitumen that is a semi-solid hydrocarbon product. Once extracted from the ground, the bitumen can be refined in order to produce crude oil. To further refine the oil and produce commercial products, the oil must be transported from northern Alberta to places around the world. The three major ways to transport crude oil are shipping, pipeline and rail. Each of these modes of transportation can create…show more content…
Deforestation can sometimes be irreversible such as, when water runoff creates land erosion and loss of fertile soil resulting in barren landscapes. Elevated Carbon dioxide levels contribute to the greenhouse gas effect and therefore global warming. The construction of the pipeline would disrupt ecosystems and animal behaviours such as feeding, breeding and migrating, potentially causing a decline in certain species. Even upon completion of the pipeline many issues can still occur. Natural disasters are unpredictable and seismic activity could cause a rupture in the pipeline. A leak in a pipeline can cause environmental impacts as well as human impacts. Pipelines are unsafe for people to work on and the number of related fatal accidents is increasing. In America alone, there have been 532 deaths caused by pipelines and $7,554,994,433 in property damage from 1986-2014. The Federal Railroad Administration and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration’s joint statement only said, “The safest mode of transportation between any two points is determined by a wide variety of factors”. They listed service availability, regional topography, climate and environment, traffic patterns and population density as factors (Singleton, 2013). Transportation of oil will always affect communities but companies need to choose the best method to ensure the least amount of accidents and the best efficiency. Choosing the right method of transporting oil can lower the
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