The Ontological And Epistemological Theory

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3.1 Introduction
Kumar (2014) defines research methodology as the process used to collect data and information for the purpose of analysis and decision making. This chapter will discuss the philosophical foundations of the research which will explain the ontological and epistemological stance underpinning the study. It discusses the mixed-method design and the specific qualitative and quantitative methods adopted and how these challenges were resolved.
3.2 Research paradigm
Corbetta (2003) defined paradigm as the perception adopted by researchers to inspire and direct a given science. Similarly, Guba and Lincoln (1994) noted that paradigms shape research in terms of reality (ontology), knowledge (epistemology) and methods of gaining
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Tolk (2012) added that the positivist approach is characterized by control, replication and hypothesis testing. These two methods were used to identify the opinions provided by interviewees.
A constructivism approaches to research
According to Bryman (2012), a constructivism approach is an ontological position that asserts that social actors are continually accomplishing social phenomena and their meanings. This approach assists the researcher to present a particular version of social reality, rather than one that can be regarded as definitive.
3.4 Qualitative vs. Quantitative study
To achieve the research purpose, the study employed an extensive research to collect accurate data and provide elaborate and descriptive data on the governance of sports in Malaysia. According to Creswell (2013), a quantitative study involves the use of statistical and mathematical computations to analyze data obtained from the research while a qualitative study uses non-numerical methods to gain an understanding of a phenomenon. A quantitative study allows the researcher to compare the various variables derived from the study while qualitative study enables the researcher to use primary sources to obtain data for the research. These two methods were used collectively to provide a suitable representation of the whole population under consideration and also provide comparative data
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