The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test ( Ogtt )

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The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used to measure the response of the body to glucose. More specifically, the test has been used for decades in the clinical as well as experimental environment as an ‘index of the efficiency of the mechanisms regulating the concentration of glucose in the blood’ (Baird et al., 1959). It has proved to be an important tool in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and is commonly used in the screening of gestational diabetes in women. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a hindered ability to remove blood glucose during carbohydrate intake due to either a decreased amount of secreted insulin, as seen in Type 1 diabetics, or a lack of response to insulin, as in Type 2 diabetics. (Mayo
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Diluted serum samples, previously collected from three patients during the tolerance test, were then dispensed according to the time they were taken. The patients had been asked to fast overnight, and the following morning were requested to ingest 75 g of glucose administered via solution, after which blood samples were taken from the brachial vein at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes for measurement of blood glucose levels (Kim et al., 2016). Following this, 200 μl Glucose Reagent (containing buffer, hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD+, ATP and Mg2+) was added within a period of 90s to each of the samples of glucose standard as well as serum samples. All mixtures were finally incubated at room temperature for 15 minutes, and the serum glucose level of fasting for the three subjects retrieved using a colorimetric method. (Kim et al., 2016)

The standard curve (Fig. 1) generated using the resulting absorbance of the glucose standard displays the variation in absorbance at 340nm with the amount (nmol) of standard present in the sample. A linear trend is clearly visible, with a calculated gradient of 0.0156. Different patterns were observed for the variation in glucose concentration of serum samples taken from the three patients at equal time intervals over a period of 180 minutes
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