The Origin and Evolution of Tracheophytes The Tracheophytes (vascular plants) are a group of plants that are distinguished from other plants due to the presence of the specialized conducting tissues xylem, which conducts water and other minerals, and phloem, which conducts the products needed for photosynthesis. The Tracheophytes include the; clubmosses, vascular plants with erect sterns that bear spores in club-shaped, cone-like structures, horsetails, a tracheophyte plant of the genus Equisetum, having hollow jointed stems, ferns, a flowerless seedless tracheophyte having roots, stems, and fronds that reproduce by spores, gymnosperms, seed-producing plants which includes the phylum of Coniferophyta, Cyadophyta, Gingkophyta, and Gnetophyta, and finally the angiosperms, the largest phyla of modern land flora which are defined by being flowing plants in which the ovule is enclosed in an ovary. The first tracheophytes evolved during the late Ordovician to early Silurian, by the end of the Silurian a land flora evolved that throughout the Devonian continued to change, adapt to a life on land and spread across a landscape previously few of all vegetation. In this paper the origins of the phylum Tracheophyta shall be discussed through the use of paleontological records up to the evolution of the modern vascular land plant.
Origins of the Land Plant “From a simple plant body consisting of only a few cells, land plants (liverworts, hornworts, clubmosses, and vascular