The Pathophisiology of Acute Renal Failure

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Acute renal failure, recently being called Acute Kidney injury (AKI), according to Susan Dirkes (2011), “the classification criteria for AKI include three grades of severity: risk of acute renal failure, injury to the kidney and failure of renal function.” (p.37). Explain the pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes. Pre-renal failure has to do with inadequate fluid in the body, which leads to inadequate perfusion, or blood circulation in the body. This disables the kidney from properly filtering out the blood. Patients have low blood pressure, feel very ill and can go into shock. This may lead to multiple organ failure. Intrarenal failure, sometimes called intristic failure, is different than pre-renal or post- renal in the sense that intrarenal is an actual damage to the nephrons, kidney tissue necrosis or renal injury due to nephrotoxic medications like (aminoglycosides, NSAIDS, chemotherapy medications like methotrexate, some metals like mercury, lithium, drug abuse such as, heroin, cocaine, and also the use of radiological contrast agents). Intrarenal failure can be irreversible but it can take several months of treatment. Post-renal failure has to do with an acute obstruction to urine outflow from either one or both kidneys, which is usually a cause of ureter obstruction kidney stones, etc. The patient will feel back pressure or pain. What diagnostic exams would be used to

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