The Pathophysiology Of Bacterial Meningitis

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1. Explain the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an acute inflammation of the meninges and the CFS. The introduction of antimicrobial therapy has had a manifest result on the progress of the prognosis. The introduction of the vaccine against Haemophilus influenza type B, Hib vaccine and streptococcus pneumoniae has steered to huge changes in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis. The inflammatory response to the infection tends to increase CSF production with a moderate increase in ICP. In bacterial meningitis, organism also gain entry by direct contact implantation after penetrating wounds, skull fractures that provide an opening into the skin or sinuses. Some procedure such as lumbar puncture, surgical…show more content…
Neisseria meningitidis remain the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children between 3 months and 10 years of age despite appropriate treatment. In children older than 1 month and less than 3 months, group B streptococci and gram negative bacilli was the most frequent pathogen causing bacterial meningitis (Nigrovic, Kupperman, and Malley, 2008) Variety of agents can cause bacterial meningitis. Since the introduction of new vaccine (Hib and PCV7), the pathogens responsible have changed. Presently, S. pneumaniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children between 3 months and 19 years of age and Neisseria meningitidis is the leading cause in children between 10 and 19 years. The causative pathogen differs in children between 1 and 3 months. The leading cause of neonatal meningitis is group B streptococci about 39% and gram negative bacilli 32% (Nigrovic, Kupperman, and Malley, 2008) 3. What are the possible complications of bacterial meningitis, including the differences between meningococcal disease and meningococcemia? The most common complications bacterial meningitis is increased inter cranial pressure (ICP). Most patients will have increased ICP and it is the major cause of an altered
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