The Pathophysiology Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 And 2

1496 WordsMay 28, 20156 Pages
The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and 2 According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012, it revealed that 29.1 million of the American population has diabetes with 1.7 million new diagnoses each year. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and costs over 176 billion dollars per year. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to the dysfunction of the pancreas. The two most common categories of diabetes mellitus are type 1 and type 2 (Huether & McCance, 2012). In order to understand the differences and similarities between type 1 and type 2, the pathophyisology, assessment findings, and treatments of each type will be examined. Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 diabetes is due to the autoimmune destruction of beta-cells. Within the pancreas, one of the cell types in the islets of Langerhans is beta cells. These beta cells are responsible for releasing insulin to regulate normal blood sugar levels. Although the mechanisms of beta cell destruction are not completely clear, it is suspected that individuals with type 1 have interferon-alpha expression due to a viral infection, which may cause the hyperexpression of class 1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by beta cells (Richardson, Morgan, & Foulis 2014). The class 1 MHC molecules are markers to help cytotoxic CD8 T-cells to recognize and destroy
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